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Experimental protocol. Three different experimental protocols were used for priming. Mice were fed a high-or low-salt diet or control diet ad libitum for 10 weeks. After 4 weeks of exposure to different sodium concentrations, all mice were intragastrically sensitized with 20 mg of ovalbumin (OVA) and 10 μg of cholera toxin (CT) once every week, for six weeks. After sensitization, mice were challenged with 50 mg of OVA via intragastric gavage. All mice were euthanized for blood and spleen sampling 1 day after the OVA challenges. Ovalbumin: OVA, cholera toxin: CT, intragastrically: i.g.

Experimental protocol. Three different experimental protocols were used for priming. Mice were fed a high-or low-salt diet or control diet ad libitum for 10 weeks. After 4 weeks of exposure to different sodium concentrations, all mice were intragastrically sensitized with 20 mg of ovalbumin (OVA) and 10 μg of cholera toxin (CT) once every week, for six weeks. After sensitization, mice were challenged with 50 mg of OVA via intragastric gavage. All mice were euthanized for blood and spleen sampling 1 day after the OVA challenges. Ovalbumin: OVA, cholera toxin: CT, intragastrically: i.g.

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Mounting evidence demonstrates that a high-salt diet (HSD) not only affects hemodynamic changes but also disrupts immune homeostasis. The T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are susceptible to hypersalinity. However, research on the influence of sodium on Th2-mediated food allergies remains scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect o...

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... experiments were performed in duplicates to obtain representative data. The experimental scheme is illustrated in Figure 1. Three different experimental protocols were used for priming. ...

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... These effects were dependent on NFAT5 and SGK1. 65 Consistently, an HSD augmented Th2 responses in food allergy mice, 136 while the high-salt formulation of Al(OH) 3 enhanced the ovalbumin (OVA)induced Th2 response in mice. 109 In addition, high NaCl can significantly increase the polarization of human Tfh cells. ...
... These responses were associated with Th17 cell activation in the kidney. 163,164 Moreover, an HSD might exacerbate food allergy in mice, 136 while sodium may participate in the progression of atopic dermatitis by regulating Th2 responses. 65 ...
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Background: The adverse effect of excessive salt intake has been recognized in decades. Researchers have mainly focused on the association between salt intake and hypertension. However, studies in recent years have proposed the existence of extra-renal sodium storage and provided insight into the immunomodulatory function of sodium. Objectives: In this review, we discuss the modulatory effects of high salt on various innate and adaptive immune cells and immune-regulated diseases. Methods: We identified papers through electronic searches of PubMed database from inception to March 2022. Results: An increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that high salt can modulate the differentiation, activation and function of multiple immune cells. Furthermore, a high-salt diet can increase tissue sodium concentrations and influence the immune responses in microenvironments, thereby affecting the development of immune-regulated diseases, including hypertension, multiple sclerosis, cancer and infections. These findings provide a novel mechanism for the pathology of certain diseases and indicate that salt might serve as a target or potential therapeutic agent in different disease contexts. Conclusion: High salt has a profound impact on the differentiation, activation and function of multiple immune cells. Additionally, an HSD can modulate the development of various immune-regulated diseases.
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Scope: This study assessed whether oleuropein prevented ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy (FA) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Methods and results: A Balb/c FA mouse model was established and maintained for seven weeks. The subjects were administered OVA by oral gavage to induce FA and supplemented with different oleuropein doses (1.00-20.00 mg/kg per day) to evaluate its preventative efficacy. The results indicated that oleuropein effectively alleviated OVA-induced allergy symptoms and promoted temperature elevation in sensitized mice. The secretion of serology-specific OVA-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, OVA-IgG, and histamine was inhibited in the sensitized mice. Oleuropein dramatically upregulated the expression of intestinal tight junction (TJ) proteins, regenerating gene (Reg) IIIγ, and interleukin (IL)-22, enhancing the physical and biochemical barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Additionally, oleuropein improved the immune homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium by affecting the function of mucosal mast cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. The disordered intestinal flora of the sensitized mice also improved after oleuropein administration. Conclusions: These findings suggest that oleuropein prevents FA by enhancing intestinal epithelial barrier function and improving immune homeostasis and intestinal flora in sensitized mice. Therefore, diets rich in oleuropein should be recommended for people with FA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Evolutionary biology informs us that the living world is a product of evolution, guided by the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection. This recognition has been fruitfully employed to a number of issues in health and nutrition sciences; however, it has not been incorporated into education. Nutrition and dietetics students generally learn very little or nothing on the subject of evolution, despite the fact that evolution is the process by which our genetically determined physiological traits and needs were shaped. In the present paper, three examples of topics (inflammatory diseases, nutrition transition, and food intolerance) that can benefit from evolutionary information and reasoning are given, with relevant lines of research and inquiry provided throughout. It is argued that the application of evolutionary science to these and other areas of nutrition education can facilitate a deeper and more coherent teaching and learning experience. By recognizing and reframing nutrition as an aspect and discipline of biology, grounded in the fundamental principle of adaptation, revelatory light is shed on physiological states and responses, contentious and unresolved issues, genomic-, epigenomic-, and microbiomic features, and optimal nutrient status and intakes.