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Experimental procedure. (a) Protocol for Experiment 1. In each trial, the fixation point was presented for 1,000 ms. The IAPS picture was then presented for 6,000 ms. Each trial was separated by a response period and an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 5,000 ms in total. Participants responded to the task in each block following the stimulus presentation using the keypad. (b) Protocol for Experiment 2. The paradigm (presentation times, participants' tasks, and the number of trials) was identical with that in Experiment 1. However, IADS sounds and not IAPS pictures were used.

Experimental procedure. (a) Protocol for Experiment 1. In each trial, the fixation point was presented for 1,000 ms. The IAPS picture was then presented for 6,000 ms. Each trial was separated by a response period and an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 5,000 ms in total. Participants responded to the task in each block following the stimulus presentation using the keypad. (b) Protocol for Experiment 2. The paradigm (presentation times, participants' tasks, and the number of trials) was identical with that in Experiment 1. However, IADS sounds and not IAPS pictures were used.

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In daily life, our emotions are often elicited by a multimodal environment, mainly visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the symmetrical characteristics of emotional responses to pictures and sounds. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the relationship of attentional states to emotional unimodal stimuli (pictures or...

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Context 1
... experiments were developed in Windows 10 and executed in MATLAB 2014b (MathWork Inc.) using Psychtoolbox 3 [31][32][33]. Experiment 1. Fig 1a shows the protocol for Experiment 1. The experiment consisted of 60 IAPS pictures and was conducted over four blocks. ...
Context 2
... order of the tasks was counterbalanced across the participants. Experiment 2. Fig 1b shows the protocol for Experiment 2. The experiment consisted of 60 IADS sounds and was conducted over four blocks. The presentation times, participants' tasks, and the number of trials in Experiment 2 were identical to those in Experiment 1. ...

Citations

... Nevertheless, in real life the strict distinction of visual and other stimuli is somewhat artificial because stimuli come in a multisensory fashion. Yet, although some research has been devoted to multisensory integration in general (Noesselt et al., 2010;Spence, 2007;Stein et al., 1996;Stein & Stanford, 2008;Talsma et al., 2010;Thompson et al., 1958), only relatively little research has been devoted to investigating possible interactions between multisensory inputs of affective stimuli (but see also Nakakoga et al., 2020). Importantly, multisensory inputs here can refer to a given real-life object (e.g., a snake that is hissing), but can also refer to more general interactions (e.g., a certain sound under bright or dark lighting conditions). ...
Article
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The present study investigated the effect of background luminance on the self-reported valence ratings of auditory stimuli, as suggested by some earlier work. A secondary aim was to better characterise the effect of auditory valence on pupillary responses, on which the literature is inconsistent. Participants were randomly presented with sounds of different valence categories (negative, neutral, and positive) obtained from the IADS-E database. At the same time, the background luminance of the computer screen (in blue hue) was manipulated across three levels (i.e., low, medium, and high), with pupillometry confirming the expected strong effect of luminance on pupil size. Participants were asked to rate the valence of the presented sound under these different luminance levels. On a behavioural level, we found evidence for an effect of background luminance on the self-reported valence rating, with generally more positive ratings as background luminance increased. Turning to valence effects on pupil size, irrespective of background luminance, interestingly, we observed that pupils were smallest in the positive valence and the largest in negative valence condition, with neutral valence in between. In sum, the present findings provide evidence concerning a relationship between luminance perception (and hence pupil size) and self-reported valence of auditory stimuli, indicating a possible cross-modal interaction of auditory valence processing with completely task-irrelevant visual background luminance. We furthermore discuss the potential for future applications of the current findings in the clinical field.
... Estudos têm mostrado que estímulos emocionalmente carregados, sejam visuais ou auditivos, provocam aumento da dilatação da pupila, quando comparados com estímulos neutros [Partala e Surakka 2003, Nakakoga et al. 2020], e essa resposta estaria controlada pelo sistema nervoso autônomo simpático , o que permite a utilização da mensuração da mudança na dilatação da pupila como uma medida da resposta emocional ante um determinado estímulo. O estudo de [Boswijk et al. 2020] considerou como alvo diferentes níveis gramaticais, em palavras isoladas; em nosso estudo, consideramos umaúnica variável, que estava inserida em um contexto linguístico maior (manchetes jornalísticas, cuidadosamente elaboradas para não conter outros traços variáveis salientes para a comunidade de fala onde a tarefa experimental foi realizada). ...
Conference Paper
Um estudo exploratório de exposição de participantes às variantes de uma variável linguística saliente do ponto de vista social, a palatalização progressiva, foi realizado com o uso de rastreamento ocular, para examinar o processamento da variação linguística. Os resultados mostram que exposição à variante estigmatizada captou a atenção e aumentou a dilatação da pupila dos participantes, o que pode ser interpretado como evidência de uma resposta emocional.
... Therefore, the pupillary response has been considered indirect evidence of mental activity such as arousal; Bradley et al. found that the pupillary response to images from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) 11 was associated with the arousal level of the emotional stimuli, suggesting that the pupil is mediated by sympathetic nervous system activation 12 . Many studies investigating the association between emotionally arousing stimuli, such as images and sounds, and pupillary responses have reported that participants show more pupillary dilation to high arousal stimulus [13][14][15][16][17][18] . In addition, the pupil diameter, as well as the EEG P3 component, reflects the change in task engagement predicted by the Adaptive Gain theory of LC-NE function during the oddball task 19 . ...
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There have been various studies on the effects of emotional visual processing on subsequent non-emotional auditory stimuli. A previous study with EEG has shown that responses to deviant sounds presented after presenting negative pictures collected more attentional resources than those for neutral pictures. To investigate such a compelling between emotional and cognitive processing, this study aimed to examined pupillary responses to an auditory stimulus after a positive, negative, or neutral emotional state was elicited by an emotional image. An emotional image was followed by a beep sound that was either repetitive or unexpected, and the pupillary dilation was measured. As a result, we found that the early component of the pupillary response to the beep sound was larger for negative and positive emotional states than the neutral emotional state, whereas the late component was larger for the positive emotional state than the negative and neutral emotional states. In addition, the peak latency of the pupillary response was earlier for negative than neutral or positive images. Further, to compensate for the disadvantage of low-temporal resolution of the pupillary data, the pupillary responses were deconvoluted and used in the analysis. The deconvolution analysis of pupillary responses confirmed that the responses to beep sound were more likely to be modulated by the emotional state rather than being influenced by the short presentation interval between the images and sounds. These findings suggested that pupil size index modulations in the compelling situation between emotional and cognitive processing.
... 62 , pointed to a need of 22 subjects to achieve 80% power, at a 5% alpha in a repeated measures ANOVA, to detect effects of emotion (3 categories). We further aimed our sample at 38 participants (and used a final N = 28), following the literature's high standard for affective research on pupil size 27,28,60,[63][64][65] . A sensitivity analysis indicates our sample (N = 28) could detect (80% power, 5% alpha): the main effect of emotion on pupil dilation at a minimum effect size of η p 2 = 0.16. ...
Article
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The ability to infer the authenticity of other’s emotional expressions is a social cognitive process taking place in all human interactions. Although the neurocognitive correlates of authenticity recognition have been probed, its potential recruitment of the peripheral autonomic nervous system is not known. In this work, we asked participants to rate the authenticity of authentic and acted laughs and cries, while simultaneously recording their pupil size, taken as proxy of cognitive effort and arousal. We report, for the first time, that acted laughs elicited higher pupil dilation than authentic ones and, reversely, authentic cries elicited higher pupil dilation than acted ones. We tentatively suggest the lack of authenticity in others’ laughs elicits increased pupil dilation through demanding higher cognitive effort; and that, reversely, authenticity in cries increases pupil dilation, through eliciting higher emotional arousal. We also show authentic vocalizations and laughs (i.e. main effects of authenticity and emotion) to be perceived as more authentic, arousing and contagious than acted vocalizations and cries, respectively. In conclusion, we show new evidence that the recognition of emotional authenticity can be manifested at the level of the autonomic nervous system in humans. Notwithstanding, given its novelty, further independent research is warranted to ascertain its psychological meaning.
... A Scopus search shows that, in the year 2020 alone, 766 works were published with the words 'pupil diameter', 'pupil size', 'pupil dilation', or 'pupillometry' in their title, abstract, or keywords. Often, pupil diameter is measured to infer mental demands (Campbell, Toth, & Brady, 2018;Cohen Hoffing et al., 2020;Van der Wel & Van Steenbergen, 2018) or emotion while viewing pictorial stimuli (Henderson, Bradley, & Lang, 2018;Mckinnon, Gray, & Snowden, 2020;Nakakoga, Higashi, Muramatsu, Nakauchi, & Minami, 2020). ...
... The second type of experiment in which pupil diameter may be affected by accommodation is an experiment in which two-dimensional pictorial stimuli are used for investigating pupillary response (e.g., Attard-Johnson & Bindemann, 2017;Finke, Deuter, Hengesch, & Schächinger, 2017;Mckinnon et al., 2020;Nakakoga et al., 2020;Snowden, McKinnon, Fitoussi, & Gray, 2019;Watts, Holmes, Savin-Williams, & Rieger, 2017). Such stimuli might contain monocular depth cues, which raises the question of whether apparent depth could trigger a change in accommodation or pupil diameter. ...
Article
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Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems at different distances (Experiment 1) and looked at line drawings with different monocular depth cues (Experiment 2) while their pupil diameter, refraction, and vergence angle were recorded using a photorefractor. Experiment 1 showed that the pupils dilated while performing the multiplications, for all presentation distances. Pupillary constriction due to accommodation was not strong enough to override pupil dilation due to cognitive load. Experiment 2 showed that monocular depth cues caused a small shift in refraction in the expected direction. We conclude that, for the young student sample we used, pupil diameter measurements are not substantially affected by accommodation.
... A Scopus search shows that, in the year 2020 alone, 766 works were published with the words 'pupil diameter', 'pupil size', 'pupil dilation', or 'pupillometry' in their title, abstract, or keywords. Often, pupil diameter is measured to infer mental demands (Campbell, Toth, & Brady, 2018;Cohen Hoffing et al., 2020;Van der Wel & Van Steenbergen, 2018) or emotion while viewing pictorial stimuli (Henderson, Bradley, & Lang, 2018;Mckinnon, Gray, & Snowden, 2020;Nakakoga, Higashi, Muramatsu, Nakauchi, & Minami, 2020). ...
... The second type of experiment in which pupil diameter may be affected by accommodation is an experiment in which two-dimensional pictorial stimuli are used for investigating pupillary response (e.g., Attard-Johnson & Bindemann, 2017;Finke, Deuter, Hengesch, & Schächinger, 2017;Mckinnon et al., 2020;Nakakoga et al., 2020;Snowden, McKinnon, Fitoussi, & Gray, 2019;Watts, Holmes, Savin-Williams, & Rieger, 2017). Such stimuli might contain monocular depth cues, which raises the question of whether apparent depth could trigger a change in accommodation or pupil diameter. ...
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Full-text available
Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems and looked at line drawings with monocular depth cues while their eyes were recorded using a photorefractor. The results showed that the pupils dilated, especially for hard multiplications. However, refraction changes were not large enough to explain the pupil diameter changes. The monocular depth cues caused a small shift in refraction in the expected direction. The results further suggest a link between eye movements, refraction, and pupil diameter. We conclude that, for the type of cognitive task and young student sample we used, pupil diameter measurements are not confounded by accommodation. However, the effect of eye movements in pupillometry needs further consideration.
... Sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration and amusement Min., max., mean and variance [29] 2006 Analysis of involuntary behavior and mirroring of pupil size during the sadness emotion. [35] 2020 emotions are classified and find the relationship between emotional stimuli and attentional stimuli at the same time when given to subjects resulted in opposition of emotional effect. ...
Article
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Emotional care is important for some patients and their caregivers. Within a clinical or home care situation, technology can be employed to remotely monitor the emotional response of such people. This paper considers pupillometry as a non-invasive way of classifying an individual’s emotions. Standardized audio signals were used to emotionally stimulate the test subjects. Eye pupil images of up to 32 subjects of different genders were captured as video images by low-cost, infrared, Raspberry Pi board cameras. By processing of the images, a dataset of pupil diameters according to gender and age characteristics was established. Appropriate statistical tests for inference of the emotional state were applied to that dataset to establish the subjects’ emotional states in response to the audio stimuli. Results showed agreement between the test subjects’ opinions of their emotional state and the classification of emotions according to the range of pupil diameters found using the described method.