Figure - available from: Scientific Reports
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Experimental design and results. (a) On each trial, participants made a selection between three equivalent roulette wheels. Their choice was either approved or vetoed, in which case the cursor was moved to and selected an alternative option. They then rated their confidence to win that trial and submitted a bid in a Becker–DeGroot–Marschak (BDM) auction to determine whether the outcome would be revealed or hidden. If their bid was successful, the outcome was shown, otherwise, it was hidden. (b) Mean confidence ratings (on a scale from 0 = “sure loss” to 100 = “sure win”) for each possible probability of winning. Confidence ratings were significantly higher when participants’ selection of lottery was approved. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. (c) Mean bid size in points for each possible probability of winning. Bids were significantly larger when participants’ selection of lottery was approved. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

Experimental design and results. (a) On each trial, participants made a selection between three equivalent roulette wheels. Their choice was either approved or vetoed, in which case the cursor was moved to and selected an alternative option. They then rated their confidence to win that trial and submitted a bid in a Becker–DeGroot–Marschak (BDM) auction to determine whether the outcome would be revealed or hidden. If their bid was successful, the outcome was shown, otherwise, it was hidden. (b) Mean confidence ratings (on a scale from 0 = “sure loss” to 100 = “sure win”) for each possible probability of winning. Confidence ratings were significantly higher when participants’ selection of lottery was approved. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. (c) Mean bid size in points for each possible probability of winning. Bids were significantly larger when participants’ selection of lottery was approved. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity pervades all aspects of human behaviour and decision-making. Recent research indicates that the value of information is determined by its propensity to reduce uncertainty, and the hedonic value of the outcomes it predicts. Previous findings also indicate a preference for options that are freely chosen, compared to equivalently valued alte...

Similar publications

Preprint
Full-text available
In many real-world scenarios where extrinsic rewards to the agent are extremely sparse, curiosity has emerged as a useful concept providing intrinsic rewards that enable the agent to explore its environment and acquire information to achieve its goals. Despite their strong performance on many sparse-reward tasks, existing curiosity approaches rely...

Citations

... There has been some work on query formation in Library and Information Science (LIS) [70,96], much conceptual in nature. There is some empirical work asking participants to generate queries in response to a stated information need (e.g., [57]), the work is limited to artificial information needs, an approach that results in less user curiosity about the results and therefore likely changed behavior [54]. A handful of test collections were created that examine query variations [9,23], but that research has focused on the impact of the variation on search results, rather than a query's origin. ...
... Some of this work comes from the library science domain, and is based on asking searchers what query they would generate given an information need scenario (this research is summarized in [103]). We already know that people are less invested in artificially constructed information than they are in their own information needs [54], so these studies, while interesting, offer limited insight into the true query formulation experience. We can supplement this understanding by examining query logs, understanding query elicitation, and looking at query reformulation. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Where do queries-the words searchers type into a search box-come from? The Information Retrieval community understands the performance of queries and search engines extensively, and has recently begun to examine the impact of query variation, showing that different queries for the same information need produce different results. In an information environment where bad actors try to nudge searchers toward misinformation, this is worrisome. The source of query variation-searcher characteristics, contextual or linguistic prompts, cognitive biases, or even the influence of external parties-while studied in a piecemeal fashion by other research communities has not been studied by ours. In this paper we draw on a variety of literatures (including information seeking, psychology , and misinformation), and report some small experiments to describe what is known about where queries come from, and demonstrate a clear literature gap around the source of query variations in IR. We chart a way forward for IR to research, document and understand this important question, with a view to creating search engines that provide more consistent, accurate and relevant search results regardless of the searcher's framing of the query.