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Experimental conditions used to evaluate Dorbigny's Toad (Rhinella dorbignyi) tadpoles, showing the compounds and the number of individuals assayed in each group. Color version online.

Experimental conditions used to evaluate Dorbigny's Toad (Rhinella dorbignyi) tadpoles, showing the compounds and the number of individuals assayed in each group. Color version online.

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Article
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Tadpoles detect chemical signals released from predators and conspecifics, and those present in the environment, and adjust their behavioral responses. This study evaluated the swimming activity of Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril and Bibron, 1941) tadpoles exposed to chemical signals, including cues from a predator fish Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 19...

Citations

... As expected, the three species analyzed showed high sensitivity to GLU. swimming. [39][40][41] Noticeably, similar behavioral changes were described for fish species such as Poecilia reticulata, presenting loss of general activity and equilibrium; [42] in Oncohrhynchus mykiss [43] presented loss of coordination thus, showing that CYP similarly affects the behavior of phylogenetically distant organisms from communities in aquatic ecosystems. Thus, in this study, R. arenarum presented alterations in TD, showing irregular swimming and immobility when exposed to CP (Table 1), as it was observed in leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) by Ruiz de Arcaute. ...
... Consequently, GLY sublethal effects include accelerated [54] or delayed development, [55] reduced size at metamorphosis, [54,55] developmental malformations, [56] and symptoms of oxidative stress. [57] Remarkably, the most active species R. arenarum, [58] seemed more sensitive to behavioral biomarkers than R. dorbignyi [41] and O. americanus, [59] considering that these species showed behavioral effects by CYP, GLY, and CP (Table 1). ...