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Exner Comprehensive System Variables

Exner Comprehensive System Variables

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Female psychopathy has been conceived as a malignant form of hysteria organized at the borderline level of personality function. In this study, the PCL-R was used to assess psychopathy, and the Rorschach Comprehensive System, Extended Aggression Scores, Rorschach Defense Scales, Rorschach Oral Dependency, Trauma Content Index, and Primitive Modes o...

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Context 1
... data were analyzed in a descriptive manner. Means, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, modes, medians, skewness, and kurtosis were calculated and are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 contains descriptive data for the relevant Exner Comprehensive System variables. ...
Context 2
... data were analyzed in a descriptive manner. Means, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, modes, medians, skewness, and kurtosis were calculated and are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 contains descriptive data for the relevant Exner Comprehensive System variables. Table 2 contains data for extended aggression and supplemental scores ( Gacono and Meloy 1994), ROD, TCI, Rorschach defense scales ( Cooper et al. 1988), and primitive modes of relating (Kwawer 1980). ...

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... The PCL-R is a 20-item measure that has been found to contain a two factor, four facet structure (Hare, 2003; scored by a 0, 1, or 2 per item): Factor 1 (Interpersonal/affective); Factor 2 (Lifestyle/antisocial); facet 1 (Interpersonal); facet 2 (Affective); facet 3 (Lifestyle); and facet 4 (Antisocial). Self-report measures (i.e., Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised [PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005]) or the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; Hart et al., 1995) have not been appropriate for creating psychopathic or non-psychopathic groups Gacono et al., 2001;Hare, 2003;Smith et al., 2014. A total PCL-R score of 30 or higher has been suggested for an appropriate categorical psychopathic group for both males and females (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Gacono, 2016;Hare, 2003;Nørbech et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2021). ...
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Managing the incarcerated population is the primary task within correctional settings. Using psychological assessment to predict institutional behavior, the psychologist has a unique set of skills essential to the management of prisoners. PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach data were compared with institutional infractions (total, physical, verbal, non-aggressive) among 126 incarcerated women. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses were used which found significant correlations between PCL-R total score, PAI scales (BOR, ANT, VPI), and Rorschach variables (ROD, EGOI, TCI, AgPot, AgPast, SumV, SumC’, MOR) with total, verbal, physical, and nonviolent incident reports. Each of these measures adds incrementally to the assessment and understanding of institutional misbehavior for incarcerated women. Clinical implications of the findings were presented.
... While male and female psychopaths evidence increased amounts of behavioral problems when compared to non-psychopaths, the extant research indicates that they are not dynamically equivalent (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Pauli et al., 2018;Smith et al., , 2019Smith et al., , 2020aSmith et al., , 2021. In line with David Shapiro's (1965) personality styles, the personality functioning of the psychopathic male is best understood as a form of pathological narcissism (malignant narcissism; Gacono & Meloy, Commentary: A Psychodynamic Model of Psychopathy, Using Gullhaugen et al. (2021) Kernberg, 1967Kernberg, , 1975Kernberg, , 1976Meloy, 1988); while the psychopathic female displays a form of malignant hysteria 2 (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono, 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014. ...
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Recently in Psychoanalytic Psychology, Gullhaugen et al. (2021) proposed a Dynamic Model of Psychopathy (DMP) to better understand psychopathic traits. Several issues with the authors' methodology, including the use of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) as an independent measure and a small sample size (N = 16) relative to their conceptual approach and the number of statistical analyses conducted, limit the conclusions that can be drawn from their data. Additionally, the authors discuss their findings as if the data from this study with all males could apply to women. In this article, we use the methodological issues presented in the Gullhaugen study to discuss problems with the broader psychopathy literature. We also provide a psychodynamic model of psychopathy consistent with theory and empirical data.
... While male and female psychopaths evidence increased amounts of behavioral problems when compared to non-psychopaths, the extant research indicates that they are not dynamically equivalent (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Pauli et al., 2018;Smith et al., , 2019Smith et al., , 2020aSmith et al., , 2021. In line with David Shapiro's (1965) personality styles, the personality functioning of the psychopathic male is best understood as a form of pathological narcissism (malignant narcissism; Gacono & Meloy, Commentary: A Psychodynamic Model of Psychopathy, Using Gullhaugen et al. (2021) Kernberg, 1967Kernberg, , 1975Kernberg, , 1976Meloy, 1988); while the psychopathic female displays a form of malignant hysteria 2 (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono, 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014. ...
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Erratum--please note on page 116, the total score of 34 should be 37. Also, the text should read "might receive" instead of receive, accounting for the potential individual items scoring.
... Studies with the PCL-R and/or the Rorschach have highlighted the differences between male and female psychopaths (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014;. Male psychopathy has been considered an amalgam of a self-centered, grandiose, and narcissistic personality along with an antisocial/criminal lifestyle (Gacono, 2000;2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994). ...
... Male psychopathy has been considered an amalgam of a self-centered, grandiose, and narcissistic personality along with an antisocial/criminal lifestyle (Gacono, 2000;2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994). Female psychopaths show less arrogance and self-aggrandizement, more interest in others, and in some situations, less violence (more limited opportunity than males due to reduced physical dominance; Cunliffe et al., 2016;Smith et al., 2014;. Psychopathic women present with key differences which distinguish them from their male counterparts including more issues with emotional regulation and higher levels of interpersonal dependency (Kreis & Cooke, 2011;. ...
... Psychopathy presents differently in females and males. Interpersonal dependency (i.e., pseudo-dependency) appears to be a core tenant of female psychopathy related to a hysterical (borderline/histrionic) style (Chodoff & Lyons, 1958;Cunliffe et al., 2016;Kreis & Cooke, 2011;Smith et al., 2014;. It may also relate to an active dependent style where needs are satisfied impulsively through the need of approval as well as serving additional intrapsychic regulatory functions (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Millon & Davis, 1996;Smith et al., 2014;. ...
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The histories of incarcerated women exhibit a multitude of personality issues including psychopathy, trauma, and interpersonal dependency. Two studies were undertaken to better understand these issues with psychopathic (PCL-R ≥ 30; N = 115) and non-psychopathic (PCL-R ≤ 24; N = 53) women incarcerated for drug, theft, fraud, violence, and sex offenses. In the first study, trauma symptoms were compared on Rorschach variables, TSI-2, and PAI scales. The female psychopathic group experienced more problems related to intrusive experiences and dissociation (TSI-2, Rorschach). In the second study, interpersonal dependency was also examined with the PAI, TSI-2, and Rorschach. The psychopathic females had higher rates of interpersonal dependency (PAI, Rorschach). Based on our findings we discuss the relationship between trauma and interpersonal dependency and the meaning of these testing variables and concepts within the personality functioning of these antisocial women.
... The male psychopath has an underlying narcissistic style while the female psychopath displays a hysterical style (symptoms related to borderline/histrionic personality disorders; Cunliffe et al., 2016;Gacono, 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014. Further, the male psychopath displays more grandiosity and self-centeredness while the female psychopath shows less arrogance and self-aggrandizement, more interest in others, and in some situations, less violence (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;. ...
... Their aggression originated from narcissism and is interwoven with sadism, occurring concurrent to emotional and interpersonal detachment (Gacono & Meloy, 1994). Similarly, the female psychopath (PCL-R total score ≥ 30) exhibited ego-syntonic aggression; however, in contrast to the male psychopaths, the Rorschach imagery for female psychopaths tends to involve a malignant hysterical (borderline and histrionic traits) and masochistic style (Smith et al., 2014;Smith, 2013). ...
... The following Rorschach variables were scored: AG, AgC, AgPot, AgPast, and SM. Taken together, the Aggression scores provide an understanding of aggression and impulses within forensic, clinical, and non-clinical populations with good reliability and validity (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Nørbech et al., 2016;Smith et al., 2014). Further, some, if not all are included in other Rorschach scoring systems and programs (e.g., CHESSSS [Fontan et al., 2013]; R-PAS [Meyer et al., 2011]; RorScan-6 [see Smith & Hilsenroth, 2003]). ...
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Psychopathy is an essential construct in forensic mental health. While male psychopathy and aggression has been thoroughly studied, less is known about this relationship with female psychopathy. In this article, the relationship between female psychopathy (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [PCL-R] total, factor, and facet scores) and the Rorschach Aggression indices (Aggressive Movement [AG], Aggressive Content [AgC], Aggressive Past [AgPast], Aggressive Potential [AgPot], Sadomasochistic Aggression [SM]) were examined. Rorschach Aggression indices between female psychopathic (PCL-R total score ≥ 30; N = 84) and non-psychopathic female offenders (PCL-R total score ≤ 24; N = 39) were also compared. PCL-R total score was significantly correlated (p <.05) with AgC, AgPast, AgPot, and SM and there were also significant correlations between the Aggression scores and PCL-R Factor/facet scores. The female psychopaths produced more AgC, AgPast, and AgPot responses than the non-psychopathic females. Rorschach aggression indices supported theory and suggested that the violence in psychopathic women stems from their identification with aggression and pervasive feelings of entitlement. Psychopathic women evidenced higher levels of these variables than the non-psychopathic offenders. The results add to the link between aggression and psychopathy as well as a better understanding of aggression in female offenders.
... In summary, female psychopathy can be conceptualized as having a malignant hysterical style organized at a borderline or psychotic level of personality which includes increased pseudodependency, pathological self-focus, dysphoric affect, a suggestible and impressionistic cognitive style, somatic symptoms, poor reality testing, and poor emotional controls (Cale & Lilienfeld, 2002;Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005, 2008Cunliffe et al., 2016;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Hare, 2003;Hicks et al., 2010;Kreis & Cooke, 2011;Smith et al., 2014Smith et al., , 2018Verona et al., 2012). ...
... Recently, research has been conducted that has shown convergence with Rorschach data and PAI findings (Morey & McCredie, 2019;. Our findings have been consistent with previous independent findings with the Rorschach and the PCL-R with incarcerated psychopathic women (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Smith et al., 2014Smith et al., , 2018. Specifically, the result of somatic concerns on the PAI (SOM-C) is similar to finding body concerns on the Rorschach (An + Xy) with psychopathic women (Smith et al., 2014). ...
... Our findings have been consistent with previous independent findings with the Rorschach and the PCL-R with incarcerated psychopathic women (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Smith et al., 2014Smith et al., , 2018. Specifically, the result of somatic concerns on the PAI (SOM-C) is similar to finding body concerns on the Rorschach (An + Xy) with psychopathic women (Smith et al., 2014). Difficulty controlling emotions and explosive emotionality on the PAI (BOR, BOR-A) was found with these women similar to more CF + C responses on the Rorschach (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Smith et al., 2018). ...
Article
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In this study, PCL-R scores were used in correlational analyses with PAI scales in a sample of incarcerated women (N = 133). The total PCL-R score was significantly correlated with many PAI scales including ANT, DRG, and AGG. Categorical analyses were also used where the psychopathic women (N = 71; PCL-R ≥ 30) were significantly higher on the PAI scales of MAN, VPI, PAR, BOR, ANT, AGG, DOM; the non-psychopathic women (N = 28; PCL-R total score ≤ 24) scored higher on the RXR scale. These results further elucidate the conceptualization of female psychopathy (borderline and histrionic personality traits) and were consistent both with clinical observations, theoretical conceptualizations, and previous Rorschach research. Clinical implications were provided for working with incarcerated psychopathic women.
... With offenders, TCI scores have been higher in debt collectors than those that have committed homicides or had low levels of violence (Nørbech, Grønnerød & Hartmann, 2016). Females high in psychopathy (M = 0.37; Smith, Gacono, Cunliffe, Kivisto,& Taylor, 2014) and female sexual offenders tend to have had high TCI scores as well (M = 0.23; Smith, Gacono, Kivisto, & Cunliffe, 2019). ...
Article
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Based on findings from prior research studies, trauma histories have been found to be ubiquitous in psychopathic women. In this study, the Rorschach Trauma Content Index (TCI) was used to better understand the trauma histories of incarcerated women (N = 180). The TCI was significantly correlated with total reported trauma events, reported sexual abuse, other Rorschach scores (AgPast, ROD), and scales on both the Personality Assessment Inventory and the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2. The TCI may be related more to sexual abuse than physical abuse and the traumatic intrusions appear to be related to borderline features and dependency in this sample. These results suggest that the TCI facilitates our understanding of trauma in the lives of incarcerated women.
... These two significant findings when combining reflections and EGOI, suggests that the self-focus within the female psychopaths is related to self-critical attitudes rather than grandiosity (consistent with a more _____________________________________________________________________________ 150 masochistic or self-effacing type of narcissism as described by Kohut and the elevations of Obsessive-Compulsive PD). As has been suggested, the female psychopath has a pathological self-focus with self-critical attitudes related to a hysterical style (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005Cunliffe et al., 2016;Smith et al., 2014;. These findings, coupled with the EGOI and reflections being correlated to PCL-R Item 1, may suggest that Glibness/Superficial Charm within female psychopaths is more related to self-focus and selfperception than Item 2 Grandiose Sense of Self-Worth. ...
... These findings, coupled with the EGOI and reflections being correlated to PCL-R Item 1, may suggest that Glibness/Superficial Charm within female psychopaths is more related to self-focus and selfperception than Item 2 Grandiose Sense of Self-Worth. A finding that relates to modifying PCL-R Item 2 for females (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Smith et al., 2014. ...
... They tend to have displeasure in their self-focus and their innate need to be accepted by others and the process in which they do this (glib, superficial charm) is tied to abnormal bonding and dependency. Therefore, it adds more to the model of the female psychopath with underlying hysterical style and a self-perception characterized by a pathological self-focus and damaged sense of self/self-critical attitudes (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014;. ...
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The Rorschach Comprehensive System Egocentricity Index (EGOI) and its component variables have been useful in understanding antisocial and psychopathic individuals (Gacono & Meloy, 1994; Gacono, Meloy, & Heaven, 1990). In this study, the EGOI, Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) were used with a sample of incarcerated women. The EGOI, Fr + rF, and pairs were examined in relation to PCL-R Items 1 (Glibness/Superficial Charm) and 2 (Grandiose Sense of Self-Worth), PCL-R Factor 1, PCL-R facet 1, and the PAI MAN-G and ANT-E scales. The EGOI and reflections were significantly correlated with PCL-R Item 1 and a combination of PCL-R Items 1 and 2. Unlike highly narcissistic male offenders where grandiosity elevates reflections and EGOI, female psychopaths (PCL-R total score ≥ 30; N = 85) and non-psychopathic females (PCL-R total score ≤ 24; N = 40), did not demonstrate a significant difference for their mean EGOI; however, female psychopaths were more likely to produce protocols with a high EGOI (≥ 0.44) with and without reflections and they had more pairs (a finding consistent with conceptual differences between male and female psychopaths). The utility of the EGOI with incarcerated women is discussed.
... Primitive defenses (splitting, devaluation, and primitive idealization) were present in the case study of Summer. While Summer produced higher-level defenses (i.e., neurotic; Acklin, 1997), they failed to function in warding off threats or stabilizing primitive defenses (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014). ...
... However, unlike the narcissism in the males, our women manifested a malignant hysterical personality style (also see Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005, 2008Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014. As a group, and unlike male pedophiles and psychopaths where narcissism and a grandiose self-structure organize their personality, these women also elevated the EGOI without producing reflections but rather by elevating pairs, suggesting more selfcriticism (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005, 2008Wiener, 2003). ...
Article
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In this study, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Rorschach, and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) were used to elucidate the personality functioning of incarcerated females with sex offenses against minors (FSOAM; N = 31). There was significant convergence among the PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach data. Both the PAI and Rorschach suggested: 1) borderline/psychotic reality testing and idiosyncratic thinking; 2) damaged sense of self, entitlement, and victim stance; 3) abnormal bonding and dependency; 4) affective instability; 5) impulsivity; and 6) chronic anger. Our comparison with a sample of male pedophiles (N = 36) highlighted gender specific issues with the women. Specifically, the women had more emotional deficits, ego-syntonic aggression, idiosyncratic thinking, and inappropriate attachments. A case study and our findings suggest a conceptual model for understanding the dynamics that result in female sexual offending behavior.
... В ряде случаев (6 больных; 1,9%) изменения личности формировались за счет накопления вычурных истерошизоидных черт («синдром злокачественной истерии») [17]. Отмечалась склонность к магическому мышлению, метафизическим рассуждениям гротескного характера. ...