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Excavation areas conducted in Zone 3 of the Gumelnița site.

Excavation areas conducted in Zone 3 of the Gumelnița site.

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The tell settlement from “Măgura Gumelnița” is the eponymous site of the Eneolithic civilization with the same name. It is probably the most significant tell settlement north of the Danube, and it belonged to the Kodjadermen ‐ Gumelnița ‐ Karanovo VI cultural complex that occupied the Balkan area in the second half of 5th millennium BC. During 2018...

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... area, the research had to be adapted to current conditions, including the existence of an acacia forest. In these circumstances, in 2018, it was decided to open a newtrench, in the area where the surveys from the 2017 campaign had been carried out. This new trench, marked Son 9 (20 × 3 m), oriented NE-SW, incorporated the previous year's sondage (Fig. 4). At its SW limit, another trench marked Son 10 (4 × 1 m) was ...
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... inspecting the profiles of this huge pit we have identified several pits in the southren profile and a tomb in the western profile. Thus two small sondages were opened -Son 11 (4 × 2 m) and Son 12 (2.6 × 1.7 m) -to properly investigate the newly discovered features (Fig. ...
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... 2019 the research carried on with two new sections, north-east to the excavation previously made in 2018. These two sections, marked Son 13 (18.6 × 2.30 m) and Son 14 (18.6 × 2.20 m), oriented NE-SW, took into account the land and trees' configuration in the area (Fig. ...
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... 3: the Terrace area: In Son 9 and Son 10 ( Fig. 4), seven graves (M2-M8) were identified containing skeletons in different stages of preservation (Fig. 5). The burial pits are oval shaped, with dimensions fitting to the size of the ...
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... Son 11 (Fig. 4, 6) three overlapped circular pits were identified (C5, C6 and C8), and based on the pottery they yielded, we can assign them to the Gumelnița culture. Pit C6 overlapped the grave pit M10, which contained an articulated individual relatively well preserved, with the same funerary treatment elements (position and orientation) as those ...
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... fauna discovered during the 2018 and 2019 archaeological seasons comes from the tell (Zone 1) and the terrace (Zone 3) areas 47 . Based on pottery charateristics (see chapter VII) and radiocarbon dating (Tab. 25; Fig. 47), it was classified as belonging to the BoianVidra culture (Zone 3) and the Gumelnița culture, phase A2 (Zone 1 and 3). This is the third archaeozoological study conducted for this site after that of Necrasov and Haimovici 48 in 1966, and more recently, that of Lazăr and collaborators 49 in ...
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... between the tell (Zone 1) and the terrace (Zone 3), the results of this study show some differences that will need to be carefully tracked in future research and which may influence the results related to the main features of animal palaeoeconomy and the evolution of the landscape during the two chronological episodes. 56 Radu et alii 2016, Figure 4, Total NR W W Total W Boian Vidra son 12 son 12 son 12 son 12 Context C7 C7 C7 C7 C7 C7 Specie/SU 1036 1039 1036 1039 Bos taurus 6 6 134 ...
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... artefact A vertebral disc ( Fig. 40.4) from a large mammal was transformed into an ornament. Centrally, the perforation was made by bifacial rotation (Fig. 40.5) started from the external side and slightly enlarged to the internal one. There are no other technological interventions. The diameter of the piece is of 39 mm, the thickness -5.5 mm, the diameter of the ...
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... artefact A vertebral disc ( Fig. 40.4) from a large mammal was transformed into an ornament. Centrally, the perforation was made by bifacial rotation (Fig. 40.5) started from the external side and slightly enlarged to the internal one. There are no other technological interventions. The diameter of the piece is of 39 mm, the thickness -5.5 mm, the diameter of the perforation -6.2 mm Tooth artefact A right canine of Cervus elaphus ( Fig. 40.6) was transformed into an ornament, most likely to be ...
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... Centrally, the perforation was made by bifacial rotation (Fig. 40.5) started from the external side and slightly enlarged to the internal one. There are no other technological interventions. The diameter of the piece is of 39 mm, the thickness -5.5 mm, the diameter of the perforation -6.2 mm Tooth artefact A right canine of Cervus elaphus ( Fig. 40.6) was transformed into an ornament, most likely to be sewn on garments. At the root level, two grooves were created through repeated passage of a lithic piece (Fig. 40.7). Only the second one encompasses the entire circumference. These would have allowed the winding of a thread, but we did not identify any traces of use-wear indicating ...
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... technological interventions. The diameter of the piece is of 39 mm, the thickness -5.5 mm, the diameter of the perforation -6.2 mm Tooth artefact A right canine of Cervus elaphus ( Fig. 40.6) was transformed into an ornament, most likely to be sewn on garments. At the root level, two grooves were created through repeated passage of a lithic piece (Fig. 40.7). Only the second one encompasses the entire circumference. These would have allowed the winding of a thread, but we did not identify any traces of use-wear indicating use. The length of the piece is 26.8 mm, the maximum width is 11.5 mm and the thickness is 8 ...
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... situation is slightly different in what the tell settlement is concerned. Here, the 14 dates available so far, span the entire Gumelnița complex chronological sequence, ranging from approximately 4800 through 4040 cal BC (see Fig. 47 and Tab. 25). Although one cannot consider a fully continuous occupation at the site, it might be that various Gumelnița communities were using the tell all along the fifth millennium cal BC. We expect that future dates from the site to increase the number of dates belonging to the early occupational phases of the tell. However, one ...
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... ale perforației; 14. pete de pigment roșu. Figure 40. 1. Spondylus valve beads (scale=1 cm); 2-3. beads details; 4. bone disc (scale=1 cm); 5. perforation detail; 6. Cervus elaphus tooth (scale=1 cm); 7. sawing marks; 8. clay bead (scale=1 cm); 9-10. ...
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... 43. 1. podoabă din cochilie de Antalis (scara=1 cm); 2. cochilii sudate; 3. concavitate la periferia perforației; 4, 7. mărgele din valvă de Spondylus (scara=1 cm); 5, 8. detalii perforație; 6. fațetă aplatizată; 9. pete de pigment roșu. Figure 44. 1a-c. ...
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... unei figurine zoomorfe găsit în Zona 3, în proximitatea complexelor C5-C6; 2a-d. Figurină zoomorfă descoperită în Zona 1. Figure 45. 1a-b. ...
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... în formă de bobină descoperit în Zona 1; 3a-c. Un fragment de masa miniaturală din lut descoperit în proximitatea complexelor C5-C6, Zona 3. Figure 46. 1-3. ...
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... Bucăți de cupru găsite în timpul săpăturilor din 2018-2019 în Zona 1. Figure 47. The results of radiocarbon analysis from Zone 3 (top) and Zone 1 (bottom) at Gumelnita. ...

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At Gumelniţa settlements north of the Danube (second half of the 5th millennium BC and beginning of the 4th millennium BC), barbed points are artefacts constantly present in the archaeological assemblages. They are mainly made on red deer antlers, selected based on their width, particularly adapted to the production of barbed points. Their manufacturing includes three stages: surface regularization following the cutting of the blank, preform shaping and finally, cutting out the specific elements (barbs, protuberances, etc.). The pointed end was shaped by longitudinal scraping, becoming conical or biconvex. The morphology of the proximal end is indicative of several types of hafting. The barbs and protuberances were created using the same procedure (cutting) and the central perforations were carried out by drilling from both sides, resulting in bi-conical perforations. A particular and rare type of barbed point lacks the specific system for the fixation of a thread, as the proximal part continues the shaft. The present study aims to reconstruct the variants of the chaîne opératoire (from raw material to finished pieces), the maintenance/recycling/repair strategies and the possible ways of using the barbed points in the area of interest based on use-wear marks and comparisons with ethnographic examples.