Examples of obtained audio homomorphic envelopes and comparison with force for different insertion velocities Raw force and Baseline Intensity indicator -IFi Curvature indicator -IFc Derivave indicator -IFd

Examples of obtained audio homomorphic envelopes and comparison with force for different insertion velocities Raw force and Baseline Intensity indicator -IFi Curvature indicator -IFc Derivave indicator -IFd

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Purpose Percutaneous needle insertion is one of the most common minimally invasive procedures. The clinician’s experience and medical imaging support are essential to the procedure’s safety. However, imaging comes with inaccuracies due to artifacts, and therefore sensor-based solutions were proposed to improve accuracy. However, sensors are usually...

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... accumulation of energy can be emphasized using a homomorphic envelope [21] over the filtered signal, representing the signal's amplitude modulation and the energy event accumulation. The computed homomorphic envelope is considered as the audio indicator (I A). Figure 7 displays four examples of audio processing performed in recordings belonging to the implemented dataset, one example per velocity. It is possible to observe how the bandpass filter enhances the set of audio excitations and how the homomorphic envelope can simplify the dynamics of an excitation, allowing to better visualize the similar audio and force responses. ...