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Examples of legal volumes in the Delft case: (a) seven different sub volumes forming one legal volume; (b) one complex legal volume that has been triangulated. 

Examples of legal volumes in the Delft case: (a) seven different sub volumes forming one legal volume; (b) one complex legal volume that has been triangulated. 

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This article reports on the first 3D cadastral registration in The Netherlands, accomplished in March 2016. The solution was sought within the current cadastral, organisational, and technical frameworks to obtain a deeper knowledge on the optimal way of implementing 3D registration, while avoiding discussions between experts from different domains....

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... However, as the technology is still at the developing stage, there are some issues in each country when upgrading to 3D digital environments driven from BIM. There is significant research in different countries including Australia (Rajabifard et al., 2019), Iran (Einali et al., 2022), New Zealand (Gulliver et al., 2017), Malaysia (Rashidan et al., 2021), the Netherlands (Stoter et al., 2017), Sweden (El-Mekawy et al., 2014;Sun et al., 2019) and UK (Wong and Ellul, 2018) regarding the use of BIM and 3D digital data for land administration. Here, we will provide a review of some jurisdictional experiences. ...
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A 2D land administration system is insufficient for managing private properties and common property areas in a multi-story structure. Building information modelling (BIM) can be used to provide a clearer representation and more efficient management of the rights, restrictions, and responsibilities (RRR) inside buildings and address the challenges of 2D representations. However, a land surveyor should still draw the legal boundaries and group ownership spaces manually inside 3D BIM authoring tools. This research aims to provide an automatic approach to define three different types of legal boundaries and group the common properties and private properties within a building. This work contributes to the use and development of BIM by providing an automatic technique to creating property ownership, allowing for easier search and retrieval of 3D property information. More significantly, it can potentially minimize the time and cost of creating BIM-based 3D cadastral data for complex multi-story structures and improve the efficiency in urban land administration.
... While this 2D approach is proven to be efficient in managing broad acre land parcels in rural areas, it is challenged by the spatial complexity of multi-storey buildings in urban areas (see Figure 1). Briefly, the challenges and problems associated with data communication and management in 2D land administration systems are (Atazadeh et al. 2017c;Stoter et al. 2017;Rajabifard et al. 2019): ...
... Researchers in the field of land administration has considered BIM as a connected data ecosystem to support 3D digital management of volumetric ownership spaces (Barzegar et al. 2020;Sun and Paulsson 2020). Studies in various jurisdictions such as Australia (Atazadeh et al. 2017a), the Netherlands (Stoter et al. 2017;Oldfield et al. 2018), andSweden (Andr ee et al. 2018;Sun and Paulsson 2020), have explored the use and extension of BIM and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) standard for 3D urban land administration based on their jurisdictional requirements. In addition, the connectivity between IFC and the well-known land administration domain model (LADM) standard has been a major focus of recent investigations (Atazadeh et al. 2018;Olfat et al. 2019;Kalogianni et al. 2020;Alattas et al. 2021;Ying et al. 2021). ...
... Therefore, BIM has been regarded as a significant source of 3D digital data for facilitating 3D land administration in the Netherlands. In particular, two real-world cases were used to illustrate BIM-based registration procedures for multi-owned developments (Stoter et al. 2017). The first development was a Delft metro station that is structurally integrated with the municipal hall. ...
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... Thanks to the advance in technology in geographic information science, 3D cadastral developments have matured with storage, analysis and visualization of 3D objects Kitsakis et al. 2018;Su et al. 2019;Kalogianni et al. 2020). While the first 3D cadastral registration was made in the Netherlands (Stoter et al. 2017), a prototype for 3D cadastre has been developed in Shenzhen, China, to support urban planning and management (Guo et al. 2013;Ying et al. 2015). Moreover, many academic studies have been done in Queensland and Victoria states of Australia, and physical models for 3D cadastre have been developed (Aien 2013;Aien et al. 2015;Kalantari and Kalogianni 2018;Rajabifard et al. 2018). ...
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... Within the scope of these developments, most countries have improved their cadastral systems according to the 2014 (Stuedler, 2014) and 2034(ICSM, 2015 visions. While the first 3D cadastral registration has been made in the Netherlands (Stoter et al., 2017), a prototype for a 3D cadastre has been developed in Shenzhen, China, to support urban planning and management (Guo et al., 2013;Ying et al., 2015). Also, many academic studies have been carried out in Queensland and Victoria states of Australia, and physical models for 3D cadastre have been developed (Aien, 2013;Aien et al., 2015;Rajabifard et al., 2018), whereas research on the environmental impact of 3D public law restrictions in Greece is described (Kitsakis and Dimopoulou, 2020). ...
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This paper summarises the comparison of Turkish and Malaysian cadastral registration systems based on the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) associated with 2D and 3D cadastral situations. Literature review shows that many countries propose their profile based on the LADM, such as The Netherlands, Australia/ Queensland, China, Greece and others. Turkey and Malaysia are some of the potential candidates for the LADM based country profile, as described in this paper. The study presents a detailed overview of the Turkish and Malaysian cadastral system, and LADM-based country profiles developed by the two countries are compared thanks to the common ontology offered by LADM.
... Over the last few years, there have been various investigations related to the integration of cadastral information and BIM. These studies mainly looked at the integration of legal information, such as legal boundaries and attributes (El-Mekawy, Paasch, and Paulsson 2014; Stoter et al. 2017;Rajabifard, Atazadeh, and Kalantari 2019); however, they are limited in terms of exploring the integration of cadastral survey data into BIM. In addition, the lack of appropriate tools to define cadastral survey data and observations within the existing BIM authoring software packages constrain using the BIM environment as an acceptable platform among land surveyors. ...
... In the Netherlands, BIM is considered a major source of 3D digital data for enabling 3D cadaster. The registration process for multi-owned properties was exemplified in two complex cases (Stoter et al. 2017). The first one is a subway station that is architecturally combined with the city hall in Delft. ...
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... Addressing the spatial and legal complexity of multi-layered ownership situations is a significant leap in realizing modern cadastral systems. A 3D digital cadastre, which aims at streamlining the recording, management and dissemination of complex rights, restrictions, and responsibilities (RRRs) using 3D spatial information models, has been one of the major research and developmental areas in different countries, such as Australia [1,2], Canada [3], China [4], Czech [5], Malaysia [6,7], New Zealand [8], Singapore [9], Sweden [10][11][12], and the Netherlands [13,14]. However, there is not a fully functional 3D cadastral platform in any jurisdiction yet due to the complexities of implementing such a platform. ...
... Several prototypes have been developed and tested for visualizing 3D cadastral data [25]. However, a limited number of these 3D visualization systems have been practically implemented in a few jurisdictions, such as the Netherlands [14]. Although there are similar activities in 3D digital cadastre prototype developments, validation of these prototypes is essential and fundamental before considering them as real-world 3D cadastral applications. ...
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... BIM-driven land administration is a new area of research with promising solutions for the 3D digital cadastre . There are investigations that looked at the enrichment of BIM, specifically the IFC standard, with legal information for different jurisdictions around the world, such as Victoria (Atazadeh et al., 2017b(Atazadeh et al., , 2016a, Netherlands (Stoter et al., 2017) and Sweden (Andrée et al., 2018;El-Mekawy et al., 2014;Sun and Paulsson, 2020). These investigations considered the specific requirements of each jurisdiction to integrate legal and physical dimensions in the 3D BIM environment. ...
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3D digital cadastral systems intend to provide a fully-integrated 3D view of legal boundaries and rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRR) in multi-storey properties, which is aligned with the physical reality. Our cognitive understanding of legal boundaries and RRR information is more communicable when we link it to our visual perception of the real world. However, there is a knowledge gap in logical relationships between legal and physical views as most of the existing approaches that integrate 3D legal and physical dimensions have been mainly proposed on a conceptual level. The main argument of this study is that the multi-dimensional nature of BIM provides the ability to extend this environment with concepts defined in Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for the purpose of 3D digital cadastre in buildings. Therefore, this study investigated how an open BIM-based data model, known as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), can be extended with LADM data elements to support integration of legal and physical views. This will create a linkage between LADM and BIM environment, which would subsequently provide a better cognitive understanding of legal spaces.
... NDCDB is a 2D spatial database for managing cadastral and survey information. However, the physical dimension of the land parcels in the real world is 3D, which means 2D approaches for capturing and storage of land parcels are not adequate to communicate ownership rights in complex situations (Atazadeh et al., 2016a(Atazadeh et al., , 2016bStoter et al., 2017;van Oosterom, 2013). In addition, some areas for improvement are identified: ...
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Urban infrastructure has been dramatically increasing in Malaysian cities over the last decades. The current 2D-based practices are challenged by the stratified development of urban land in underground and aboveground areas. Currently, in Malaysia, surveying measurements are stored in a 2D-based cadastral database in the form of horizontal coordinates. However, this method is not capable to accommodate ownership complexities in the vertical dimension. The existing methods to capture, compute and adjust cadastral survey data need to be upgraded for the purpose of implementing a 3D land administration system (LAS) in Malaysia. The transformation from 2D to 3D LAS should be in accordance with a standard-based approach. Land Administration Domain Model (LADM): ISO 19152:2012 provides an internationally accepted standard model for recording and managing cadastral data. This study aims to design and develop an LADM-driven 3D LAS for Malaysia by building on existing research carried out for LADM adoption in this country. The proposed approach includes modifications in the existing workflows for capturing 3D survey data, new architecture to support 3D land parcels, and a new database for creating an LADM-based 3D LAS in line with data requirements in Malaysia. The major part of the upgrade from 2D to a 3D environment consists of capturing, processing and management of height of survey points that define parcel boundaries. This study demonstrated and confirmed that the LADM standard plays a significant role in realising a 3D-enabled system for Malaysian land administration.
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Geospatial data and information within contemporary land administration systems are fundamental to manage the territory adequately. 3D land administration systems, often addressed as 3D cadastre, promise several benefits, particularly in managing today's complex built environment, but these are currently still non-existent in their full capacity. The development of any complex information and administration system, such as a land administration system, is time-consuming and costly, particularly during the phase of evaluation and testing. In this regard, the process of implementing such systems may benefit from using synthetic data. In this study, the method for simulating the 3D cadastral dataset is presented and discussed. The dataset is generated using a procedural modelling method, referenced to real cadastral data for the Slovenian territory and stored in a spatial database management system (DBMS) that supports storage of 3D spatial data. Spatial queries, related to 3D cadastral data management, are used to evaluate the database performance and storage characteristics, and 3D visualisation options. The results of the study show that the method is feasible for the simulation of large-scale 3D cadastral datasets. Using the developed spatial queries and their performance analysis, we demonstrate the importance of the simulated dataset for developing efficient 3D cadastral data management processes.