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Example of an information map.  

Example of an information map.  

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Research in psychology and communication shows a strong advantage for visual displays in comparison with typical language, and technological innovations in computer graphics and printing capabilities now make them cost-effective as well. It can be argued that the greater use of evidence-based visualization strategies can enhance communication occur...

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... maps (see Figure 1 for an example) are typically created by experts to communicate information about special- ized topics. These include representations of theoretical models (Simpson, 2004(Simpson, , 2006), knowledge structures (Hall, Dansereau, & Skaggs, 1992), and technical procedures (O' Donnell et al., 1990). ...

Citations

... This also plays a part in how we understand visualisations [36] which form an integral part of dashboards. Visualisations in particular are often seen as being able to transfer information automatically [13], however, recent research questions this assumption. Challenges of representing big data [42] and a lack of understanding of factors influencing impact [65] make sense-making of data visualisations complicated. ...
Conference Paper
City dashboards present information about a city to a broad audi- ence with some thought given as to how some of these audiences might understand the information. However, little research has looked at how ’citizens’ make sense of dashboards. Using two sample dashboards, we asked community activists from four different areas (Health, Environment, Transport and Agriculture) to explore the information displayed. Using grounded theory approaches, we looked at factors which support or hinder users sense-making. From further analysis of the data we identify four key challenges that need to be addressed to support users making sense of city dashboards: lack of support given for understanding the information and data presented, lack of possibilities for users to engage, lack of purpose, and a lack of governance. We recommend a series of design and development actions for city dashboards creators for each challenge area. The desire to give access to open data through dashboards requires a considerable investment of time and resources - an investment that is wasted if dashboards are not useful to their users (citizens) and, as a result, are not used.
... Cognitively, humans process visual representations more readily than words relating the same ideas and relationships (Dansereau and Simpson 2009). Conceptual models synthesize and convey extensive information about complex processes and interactions quickly, clearly, and efficiently (Norton and Schofield 2017). ...
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Institute of Environmental Health (NIEHS) held a workshop in 2012 to discuss principles and applications of cumulative risk assessment (CRA). The workshop organizers chose cardiovascular disease (CVD) as an example health outcome for which cumulative risk considerations could illuminate environmental and health management strategies. To guide discussions, we developed a series of conceptual models illustrating factors influencing CVD. The CVD conceptual model represents complex processes across varying space and time scales, different causal pathways, and multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors and factors. It includes causal influences of environmental exposures and lifestyle choices, in the context of genetics and medical factors. The representation of cumulative risk as a network of interrelated nodes and arrows helps define and organize the problem and available information, determine the scope and scale, and creates a platform for analysis. It provides an interface for discussing how different entities (e.g., environmental versus health-driven organizations) can work together on different parts of the problem, and facilitates relative risk ranking and management triage. Color coding is used to distinguish categories of stressors and possible oversight responsibility. This work informs guidelines for CRA planning and assessment of factor combinations affecting real-world risk.
... StaySafe is based on cognitive processing models derived from analytically created schemas (ACS) and Texas Christian University (TCU) Mapping Enhanced Counseling (Dansereau, 2005;Dansereau & Simpson, 2009), which include experiential and analytic systems (Kahneman, 2011;Klacynski, 2005). Experiential systems reference previous experiences (Kahneman, 2011;Weber & Johnson, 2009) believed to be used in making decisions about risk behaviors because they are rapid and refer to familiar behaviors, even those with negative outcomes. ...
Article
Background: A self-administered tablet app, StaySafe, helps people under community supervision to make better decisions regarding health risk behaviors, especially those linked to HIV, viral hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted infections. The multi-session StaySafe design uses an interactive, analytical schema called WORKIT that guides users through a series of steps, questions, and exercises aimed at promoting critical thinking about health risks associated with substance use and unprotected sex. Repetition of the WORKIT schema is designed to enhance procedural memory that can be rapidly accessed when individuals are faced with making decisions about risky behaviors. Methods: A total of 511 participants under community supervision in community and residential treatment settings from three large Texas counties completed consent forms and baseline surveys, followed by randomization to one of two conditions: 12 weekly StaySafe sessions or standard practice (SP). The study also asked participants to complete a follow-up survey three months after baseline. Outcome measures included knowledge, confidence, and motivation (KCM) scales around HIV knowledge, avoiding risky sex, HIV services, and reducing health risks; decision-making; and reports of talking about issues such as making better decisions, avoiding HIV risks, and HIV prevention or treatment with others (probation officers, counselors, trusted friend or advisor, or family members). Results: Participants in both community and residential settings voluntarily completed multiple StaySafe sessions, with those in the residential settings completing more sessions. When compared with SP participants, StaySafe participants showed greater improvement in the KCM measures-HIV knowledge, avoiding sex risks, HIV services, and risk reduction skills. In addition, greater improvements in the KCM measures as well as an increased likelihood to discuss issues with others were associated with completing more StaySafe sessions. Conclusion: These results suggest that the StaySafe app is a feasible and potentially effective tool for improving health risk reduction decision-making for individuals under community supervision.
... The processes and strategies within each domain are addressed through a series of exercises that are presented in worksheets and tools. Each of the 15 ERIC exercises delivered in the present pilot included the following elements: (a) psychoeducation delivered via a narrative, experiential exercise, or analogy; (b) a behavioral exercise involving node-link mapping (Dansereau and Simpson, 2009); and (c) a practice and reflection schedule to prompt daily repetition of new skills. For example, ERIC includes a grounding skill that progressively steps young people through sensory experiences in order to interrupt ruminative thinking. ...
Article
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Objective: There is a demonstrated link between the mental health and substance use comorbidities experienced by young adults, however the vast majority of psychological interventions are disorder specific. Novel psychological approaches that adequately acknowledge the psychosocial complexity and transdiagnostic needs of vulnerable young people are urgently needed. A modular skills-based program for emotion regulation and impulse control (ERIC) addresses this gap. The current one armed open trial was designed to evaluate the impact that 12 weeks exposure to ERIC alongside usual care had on young people's ability to regulate emotions, as well as examine potential moderating mechanisms. Methods: Seventy nine young people (50.6% male; M = 19.30; SD = 2.94) were enrolled to the 12 week intervention period. Twenty one practitioners from youth and community health services delivered relevant ERIC modules adjunct to usual care. Linear mixed effects regression (with random intercept) was used to examine change over time across the primary outcome of emotion dysregulation and secondary outcomes of depression, anxiety, stress, experiential avoidance and mindfulness. Moderation analyses were conducted to test whether the magnitude of change in emotion dysregulation moderated change over time in secondary outcomes. Results: Analyses revealed significant improvement in the primary outcome of emotion dysregulation with a moderate effect size (Mean Change = −10.24, 95% CI (−14.41, −6.06; Cohen's d av = −0.53), in addition to decreases in the secondary outcomes of depression, anxiety, stress and experiential avoidance. No improvements in mindfulness were reported. Moderation analyses revealed that the residualised change over time in emotion dysregulation moderated the change over time in symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety, stress, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness. Conclusion: Reductions in the severity of emotion dysregulation, depression, anxiety, stress and experiential avoidance are promising, and were evident despite the complexity of the participants and the diversity of the service setting. The improvements found in each outcome were only observed for those young people whose emotion regulation also improved, providing preliminary evidence for the role of emotion regulation as a key treatment target in this population.
... In 2009, Dansereau and Simpson [1] suggested that images that include node-link graphic representations can enhance communication among clinical research, counseling, supervision and training, and organizational functioning. However, they did not quantify what an image was worth in terms of words; rather, they were confirming the importance of an image for knowledge translation. ...
Article
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Abstract Data visuals (scientific images) display and express various amounts and types of information, and, as the saying goes,“an image is worth 1,000 words.” Based on a review of two studies, a new estimation of how many words an image is actually worth was calculated in an attempt to quantify the complicated biological process of image perception. The result revealed that an image is actually worth more than 30,000 words. This new value estimation provides insight into the power of images. Given that figures, graphs, and data visualizations are types of images commonly used in research and publications, every produced figure is important and must be carefully considered during the publication process.
... The use of the worksheets, for example, can help refine target areas, explore feasibility, and focus discussion around task planning. The structure provided by these tools helps improve communication and keeps goal selection activities focused (Dansereau and Simpson 2009). The specification of steps is important, not only regarding obvious tasks that are required to achieve a specific goal (e.g., establish an MOU between JJ and BH to open the pathway for treatment referral), but also including steps that address peripheral or underlying issues such as improving data collection and reporting capacity, providing staff training, ensuring ongoing communication, and intentional efforts to communicate across providers is essential when addressing complex goals. ...
Article
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Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorders among juvenile offenders, most do not receive services. System-level process improvement plans to address unmet service needs can be optimized by combining data-driven decisions and facilitated meetings with behavioral health stakeholders. This paper operationalizes and analyzes the level of specified complexity among process improvement plans evident within 36 juvenile probation and drug courts across 7 states. To inform more effective implementation strategies, this analysis identifies and prioritizes promising courses of agency enhancement toward addressing unmet substance use needs.
... The TRIP curriculum is derived from Mapping-Enhanced Counseling (MEC; Dansereau & Simpson, 2009), as listed on NREPP (National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2008) with over 80 studies demonstrating its effectiveness, particularly as a means of promoting problem recognition, treatment motivation, thoughtful and objective decision making, and therapeutic engagement (Becan, Knight, Crawley, Joe, & Flynn, 2015;Knight, Dansereau, Becan, Rowan, & Flynn, 2015;Knight et al. 2016). MEC is particularly advantageous for use in adolescent treatment settings (World Health Organization [WHO], 2017), because it helps adolescents recognize impulsivity, which often translates into higher risk-taking, including drug use, illegal activity, and unprotected sex. ...
... Research has indeed shown that diagrams, images, and pictures can communicate a considerable amount of information rapidly and efficiently. Images can serve a powerful explanatory function by facilitating our ability to process and 1 Introduction INTRODUCTION understand information more quickly and comprehensively than, for example, relying on words alone (Dansereau & Simpson, 2009;Larkin & Simon, 1987;Tufte, 2006). For example, by showing a person a picture of a map, they can understand more quickly and easily where something is located compared to using words alone to explain the location. ...
Book
This book is a follow-up to many years of collaborative work of Professor Charles Boisvert with Dr. Mohiuddin Ahmed, his supervisor during his Ph.D. student training and with whom he has been involved over many years thereafter in various publications relating to development and formalization of mind stimulation therapy model in clinical practice. Using Diagrams in Psychotherapy: A Guide to Visually Enhanced Therapy (Boisvert, CM & Ahmed M. Routledge, 2019) is a sequel to their previously published book, Mind Stimulation Therapy: Cognitive Intervention for Persons with Schizophrenia (Ahmed M & Boisvert CM, Routledge, 2013). Many of the chapters in Using Diagrams in Psychotherapy highlighting visually enhanced therapy technique (VET) deal with management of everyday psychological problems that all of us face in life. The book, as such, has a broader application, and a wider appeal to a larger audience. Some of the universal concepts highlighted in the book are Mindfulness, Ambivalence, Uncertainty, Stress, and Communication, as well as other “common life issues such as " Worry, Pain, Rumination, Mood Regulation, Self-Esteem, Panic, Urges," etc., all of which often distress people leading to maladaptive behaviors and moods. This book provides visually aided strategies primarily drawn from their clinical practice to accompany collaborative dialogue in a user-friendly format for clinicians for use with their clients. The strategies presented in the book can serve as self-help guides for better understanding and coping with everyday psychological issues in life. Chapter 8 of this book specifically highlights strategies worth considering for clinicians working with “challenging mental health clients” across life spans (e.g., children and adolescents with behavior problems, developmentally disabled clients with persistent behavior problems, clients with persistent psychosis, clients with dual diagnosis of substance abuse and mental illness, and elderly psychiatric clients). This book is consistent with their previously published collaborative publications that advocate for the use of visually enhanced techniques as adjunct to auditory based dialogue in psychotherapy and counseling to enhance more effective communication between clients and clinicians, as auditory based conversation used in the traditional counseling and psychotherapy dialogue technique may be compromised for many psychiatric patients. The authors also make a strong case for understanding of the role of associative learning process in emotional conditioning that often triggers behavior symptoms and are often the target for psychiatric interventions. The authors suggest that targeted clinical behavior symptoms, specifically of persistent duration with underlying "entrenched" habits may often best respond to use of positive redirection strategies that draw from classical conditioning and social learning principles rather than from over reliance on the exclusive use of strategies to increase awareness of consequence to effect changes in mood and behavior a la operant conditioning principle. The authors make a case that all three different principles of learning operate on all of us to a varying degree in people’s daily lives. The book gives concreted communication strategies to augment the communication platform and “learning environment” in psychotherapy, ultimately enhancing the client’s ability to remember, understand, and use the information exchanged in the therapy session. VET examples in the book presents specific visually mediated and multimodal communication strategies to assist therapists in communicating more effectively with clients and assisting clients in retaining information by staying more focused on relevant therapy goals, concepts, and themes. The visual strategies are designed to enable clients to become more actively engaged in the session by, for example, writing down information and using diagrams and worksheets to address therapy themes and goals. Therapists can use VET strategies to explain universal psychological processes and to develop practical coping strategies. Drawing upon universal information processing principles, the book presents over 100 diagrams illustrating various visually oriented interventions, which can be used with a broad range of clients, clinical settings, and clinical problems. Many of the examples provided in the book have been born out of actual clinical practice. The book discusses relevant research from the fields of cognitive science, education, learning, memory, and communication, all demonstrating how visuals can serve as highly effective communication and teaching tools. In discussing this research, the book presents inserts called “Therapy Thought Boxes” inviting therapists to reflect on how findings from these allied fields can inform the “communication process” in psychotherapy- a profession that has historically relied on, and potentially over-relied on, verbal processing as the primary communication modality. Using visuals to improve information processing and communication in psychotherapy provides therapists with a unique and user-friendly way to augment the traditional practice of psychotherapy. The book is presented in a visually-appealing way and provides multiple diagrams and visuals to convey concepts. In the book, the term visual refers to any visually cued activity a therapist could use to enhance communication in the session such as drawing a diagram to illustrate a concept, providing a handout to explain a coping strategy, using a worksheet to identify goals, or using a computer or electronic device to more actively engage the client. Numerous practical and user-friendly handouts and worksheets are provided. The book should serve as a useful reference guide for clinicians across mental health disciplines irrespective of level of any theoretical orientation training model they may use, as elements of the strategies presented in the book can be easily adapted to one's clinical service needs.
... Pictures are considered to be better in communicating complexities and emotions as it is comparatively easier to digest a large amount of information visually rather than verbally [Dansereau et al., 2009]. Some studies have been carried out to see how this applies in the area of visualisation. Lee et al. (2016)'s study of people's sense making process when encountering unfamiliar visualisations does not explicitly explore the connection between data, its visual representation and users' consequent comprehension. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes research into how current city dashboards support users' sense making processes. It uses criteria identified in previous research concerning visualisation and applies these to a number of city dashboards that are publicy available and hence considered to be seen as a potential communication tool. The paper briefly describes the context regarding dashboards and gives a broad overview of how visualisation design can affect sense making processes. Finally it lists the initial results of a 'at a glance'-style review according to a number of sense making criteria.
... Secondly, the extent to which the integration of strategy elements was perceived had an effect on recall scores. Picture plus text communication was associated with higher perceived integration scores, confirming Hypothesis 3, and this echoes findings from clinical trials in the psychology literature (Dansereau & Simpson, 2009). Overall, superior recall of strategy communication is explained by the mode of receiving the strategy, the mode of recall, and perceptions of integration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many claims have been made about the learning benefits of communicating strategies in multi-media picture plus text formats, rather than mono-media text-only formats. However, there is little theorization and empirical evidence to support these claims. Drawing upon Cognitive Load Theory to develop learning-related hypotheses, this manuscript reports on a multi-country experiment that tests the effects of different modes of strategy communication on student learning. The results show the learning benefits to students of multi-media presentations of strategy and suggests how strategy professors should further encourage students to draw strategies in class. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2018.0066