Figure 8 - uploaded by Bernhard Jenny
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Example of a 2 × 2 image matrix shown for map preference questions. Subjects were asked which maps they preferred. Values mapped are different for the four maps.

Example of a 2 × 2 image matrix shown for map preference questions. Subjects were asked which maps they preferred. Values mapped are different for the four maps.

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Dot mapping is a traditional method for visualizing quantitative data, but current automated dot mapping techniques are limited. The most common automated method places dots pseudo-randomly within enumeration areas, which can result in overlapping dots and very dense dot clusters for areas with large values. These issues affect users’ ability to es...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... rating of 5 for both questions indicates that the map is 'Very Clear' and 'Very Appealing', whereas a rating of 1 for both questions indicates 'Not Clear' and 'Not Appealing'. The second type of map preference question showed participants two, 2 × 2 image matrices (Figure 8) containing each map type, and participants were asked to rank the maps on each matrix. Responses ranged from 1 to 4, with 1 being their 'favorite' and 4 being their 'least favorite'. ...
Context 2
... each map type, users were shown the map and asked to provide a numerical Likert-scale response for questions of 'Clarity and Legibility' (1 = Not Clear; 3 = Somewhat Clear; 5 = Very Clear) and 'Aesthetic Preference' (1 = Not Appealing; 3 = Somewhat Appealing; 5 = Very Appealing) (Likert 1932). The participants were asked to rate two sets of maps; see Figure 8 for the four maps of one set. Figure 10 shows the average of the preference and clarity responses. ...
Context 3
... were shown the same maps that were used in the preference and clarity question in two, 2 × 2 image matrices showing the four types on a single page (Figure 8). Using the matrix, they were asked to rank-order the maps from 1 to 4 (1 = 'favorite' and 4 = 'least favorite'). ...

Citations

... The specific verification attempt of one of a small set of entries then led us to create a novel visual representation we call "Motion Plausibility Profiles" (Sec. 6). These allowed us to analyze the data from specific individual contributors. ...
... More importantly, however, we provide evidence for many of the data biases and errors for habitat data derived from social media, i. e., data that was not collected in a citizen science context-we had extracted our own species habitat data from online image 6 In Table 1 we only list biases and errors we found, expected to find, or discussed above, but others exist in citizen science as noted, e. g., by Kandel et al. [37] and Waller [71]. There are also biases in general social media contribution that we did not identify in our data. ...
... Dataset contributions by the different services in our datasets: Entries from both datasets shown via graduated[6] pie charts, scaled by the logarithm (base 1.2) of the entry count in the respective grid cell. Legend as inFig. ...
Article
We present a case study on a journey about a personal data collection of carnivorous plant species habitats, and the resulting scientific exploration of location data biases, data errors, location hiding, and data plausibility. While initially driven by personal interest, our work led to the analysis and development of various means for visualizing threats to insight from geo-tagged social media data. In the course of this endeavor we analyzed local and global geographic distributions and their inaccuracies. We also contribute Motion Plausibility Profilesa new means for visualizing how believable a specific contributors location data is or if it was likely manipulated. We then compared our own repurposed social media dataset with data from a dedicated citizen science project. Compared to biases and errors in the literature on traditional citizen science data, with our visualizations we could also identify some new types or show new aspects for known ones. Moreover, we demonstrate several types of errors and biases for repurposed social media data.
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