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Evolution Chart of Design—1930 (Loewy, 1979, pp. 74-76). Permission pending. 

Evolution Chart of Design—1930 (Loewy, 1979, pp. 74-76). Permission pending. 

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... yields to Darwin. Progress in the industrial designers' "Evolution Chart of Design" (Loewy, 1979) could easily be branches from the Tree of Life ( Figure 5). The trouble with this, of course, is that technology is decoupled from the constraints of evolu- tion and removed from history and culture (Goldman, 1989;Smith & Marx, 1994). ...


... Although partially derived from theories of technology (i.e., cybernetics, system dynamics, etc.), theorists of autopoiesis, enactivism and complexity, have not accounted for technology (e.g., Davis and Sumara 2006;Davis et al. 1996Davis et al. , 2000Sumara and Davis 1997). Here, technologies are merely components or processes nested within, or incidental to other systems, generally for augmenting and embodying cognition (Brennan et al. 2007;Winograd and Flores 1986). Nonetheless, the cognitive agency of technologies within complex systems or information ecologies is crucial (Clark, 1997(Clark, , 2003Gardenfors and Johansson 2005;Gorayska and Mey 2002;Norman 1993;Perkins 1985;Perkins et al. 2000;Saloman 1993;Sternberg 2005;van Oostendorp 2003). ...
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This article addresses how we learn technology across the lifespan. After outlining findings of research into how children, adolescents, teens and adults learn technology, we address theoretical shifts from sociocultural to technocultural theories of cognition and reorientations from mediated to cyborgenic learning. The balance of the article describes effective methods for researching cognition and technology. In the process of outlining key findings from research, we emphasize the links among methods and theories employed, data produced and conclusions drawn. Our goal is to sketch a lifelong learning context for undertaking studies of cognition and technology, and to provide a methodological and theoretical analysis for researchers venturing into this dynamic and volatile field. In summary, we provide a far-ranging agenda for researching cognition and technology.