Estimates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the 28 member states of the European Union. Age-standardized rates (ASR) in 2012, adjusted to the World standardized population (W). Adapted from Ferlay et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available at: http://globocan.iarc.fr (accessed on 26.03.2015).  

Estimates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the 28 member states of the European Union. Age-standardized rates (ASR) in 2012, adjusted to the World standardized population (W). Adapted from Ferlay et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available at: http://globocan.iarc.fr (accessed on 26.03.2015).  

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Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to ca...

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Abstract Introduction: cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women and vaccination of adolescents with Human papilloma virus vaccines is a major preventive strategy for this cancer. Despite the usefulness of cervical cancer vaccines significant gaps still exist in the level of awareness and acceptability of the vaccine amon...

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... As we all know, liver cancer includes primary and secondary, so it may be difficult to explain its trend. However, considering the currently recognized risk factors for liver cancer such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, consumption of foods containing aflatoxin and excessive alcohol consumption (La Vecchia et al. 2000;Parkin 2006;Villain et al. 2015), we can also try to explain this phenomenon in terms of the widespread vaccination against hepatitis B and the decrease in alcohol consumption (Tanaka et al. 2011). ...
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Purpose Describe and predict the malignant tumor deaths in Xi'an so as to provide evidence for the government to formulate the prevention and treatment plans. Methods Overall malignant tumor death in Xi'an in the past 16 years was described. The multi-decrease life table was used to calculate cumulative mortality risk by cause and life expectancy reduction years by cause of malignant tumors in 2020. The join point regression models were used to analyze the change trend of standard mortality of malignant tumors in Xi'an from 2005 to 2020. The appropriate gray models were selected to predict the death of malignant tumors in Xi'an in the next decade. Results The mortality of total malignant tumors in Xi'an showed that men are higher than women and the elderly are higher than other groups. As for 2020, lung cancer had the highest risk of death for both men and women, while leukemia had the highest life expectancy reduction years by cause. From 2005 to 2020, standardized mortality of majority malignant tumors showed downward trends, which were particularly obvious in recent years. The prediction results of several major malignant tumors showed that in the next decade, the mortality of most malignant tumors had downward trends, but combined with the increase of population in the future, the number of malignant tumor deaths in Xi'an will continue to increase. Conclusions Malignant tumors in Xi'an have decreasing mortality trends in recent years, and effective measures to prevent and treat tumors should be strengthened in the future.
... The median age at diagnosis is 47 years in the United States, where almost 50% of cases are diagnosed under age 35 years [38] . In South Africa, more than 25% of diagnoses are in women aged 40-49 years between 2004 and 2012 [39] . ...
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... 9 Furthermore, hr HPVs are associated with 43 % of vulvar cancers, with 50 % of penile carcinomas, with 70 % of vaginal carcinomas and with 88 % of anal carcinomas of both sexes. 10 The dominant hr HPV types in anogenital carcinomas are HPV 16 (range, 40.9-82.2 %) and HPV 18 (44.7 % of adenocarcinomas of the cervix, 2.6-18.1 % at other locations). ...
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Background: Chronic viral infections caused by highly contagious human papillomaviruses (HPVs) from the alpha genus are a substantial risk factor for tumour diseases. Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare the HPV infection pattern with histology in a patient group of immunocompromised HIV+ and non-immunocompromised patients with anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Materials and methods: Tissue samples (n = 210) from the anogenital area of 121 patients underwent retrospective histological and molecular examination for HPV DNA prevalence by chip analysis. The study was part of a cancer screening from the Dermatology Department of the LMU Munich, Germany. All data were collected and processed anonymously. Results: HPV 6 or 11 are more abundant in tissue samples from histologically diagnosed condylomata acuminata (47.7%) compared to grade 1, 2, and 3 intraepithelial neoplasias (IN 1-3). Detection of high-risk (hr) alpha-HPV DNA was significantly higher in tissue samples from IN 3 (67.5%) compared to IN 1 and 2 (12.9%), and compared to condylomata acuminata (29.5%). No HPV types were detected in histologically unremarkable tissue samples. There was a significant association between the prevalence of HPV 16 and the classifications IN 1 to IN 3 (χ2 (2) = 13.62, P = 0.001). We identified a significant correlation between the prevalence of high-risk and low-risk (lr) HPV types and HIV, especially mixed infections of different HPV types correlated with high-grade IN. Based on the present data, we suggest the risk of carcinoma in HIV+/- patients (RICH) score and test it in the 121 patients. Conclusions: hr alpha-HPVs, mainly HPV 16, are associated with increased oncogenic potential of premalignant lesions (IN 1-3), especially in HIV+ patients. Based on the combination of HIV/HPV-testing and histological analysis, we identified correlations that could potentially forecast the risk of malignant transformation and summarized them in the form of RICH score.
... [46] At the early of the 2014, 21 European countries have included HPV vaccination for girls in their national immunization schedules, and 11 out of those countries have also introduced catch-up programs. [47] Besides, a cost-effectiveness analysis in Denmark found the inclusion of both boys and girls is a cost-effective preventive approach to control cancers and cancer precursors in men and women. [48] The potential association between HPV and gastric cancer risk would be interesting to studied in the present systematic review. ...
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... Its incidence and mortality is higher in underdeveloped countries. This is a result of more effective screening programs in developed nations [9]. The possibility of abnormal Pap smear with autoimmune disease has been the subject of research in a number of studies, but the results of these studies are not the same. ...
... The majority of cervical HPV infections get spontaneously cleared within a few years. [9] However, the longer the duration of cervical HPV infection (persistence), the lesser are the chances that a patient can clear his/her infection. It has been observed that <10% of new cervical HPV infections become persistent, lead to dysplastic changes of the cervical epithelium, and progress to precancerous lesions, typically over a period of 5-10 years. ...
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... The changes in the gut inluences the vaginal microbiome, for instance the expression of NOX is modulated by, for example, the presence of Helicobacter pylori, which induces an indirect prooxidative mechanism through recruitment of neutrophils and by assembling of their NOX2 components to the cell membrane [1,24]. ...
... Despite the obvious increase of NMSC, population-based studies of skin cancer mortality after organ transplantation and in immunocompetent individuals are still scant (John et al., 2016). This is mainly due to geographic variability of incidence rates and, most importantly, the exclusion of NMSC from central cancer registries records (reviewed in Apalla et al., 2017) as recently noticed in the "European Code against Cancer: Infection and Cancer" (Villain et al., 2015). Such an obvious gap in cancer documentation should be filled as exemplified by initiatives such as the "Keratinocyte Carcinoma Consortium" (Madeleine et al., 2017), because NMSC incidence is increasing worldwide and caused by daily and life-long risk factors such as UV exposure and skin infections (Garrett et al., 2016;Prasad and Katiyar, 2017). ...
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There is still controversy in the scientific field about whether certain types of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Deciphering the etiological role of cutaneous HPVs requires – besides tissue culture systems – appropriate preclinical models to match the obtained results with clinical data from affected patients. Clear scientific evidence about the etiology and underlying mechanisms involved in NMSC development is fundamental to provide reasonable arguments for public health institutions to classify at least certain cutaneous HPVs as group 1 carcinogens. This in turn would have implications on fundraising institutions and health care decision makers to force – similarly as for anogenital cancer – the implementation of a broad vaccination program against “high-risk” cutaneous HPVs to prevent NMSC as the most frequent cancer worldwide. Precise knowledge of the multi-step progression from normal cells to cancer is a prerequisite to understand the functional and clinical impact of cofactors that affect the individual outcome and the personalized treatment of a disease. This overview summarizes not only recent arguments that favor the acceptance of a viral etiology in NMSC development but also reflects aspects of causality in medicine, the use of empirically meaningful model systems and strategies for prevention.