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Estimated yield of a Vertical Farm compared to traditional agriculture

Estimated yield of a Vertical Farm compared to traditional agriculture

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With rising population and purchasing power, demand for food and changing consumer preferences are building pressure on our resources. Vertical Farming, which means growing food in skyscrapers, might help to solve many of these problems. The purpose of this study was to construct a Vertical Farm and thereof investigate the economic feasibility of i...

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... weighted average is being made to arrive at the area cultivated on an average. The estimated yield of a Vertical Farm is shown in Table 1. Due to the closed environment and controlled lightning, the land productivity of Vertical Farming is twice as high as traditional agriculture. ...
Context 2
... additionally into account that only 0.25 ha on which the farm is built are needed, the total yield increases 516 fold compared to traditional agriculture through stacking the production. (Table 1) In total this leads to an estimated production of 3,573 tons of edible fruit and vegetables. ...

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... However, the current growth rate, based on recent years, has led to shortages in some nations, where the supply of these essentials could no longer meet the demand, most notably in the food industry. A paper by Banerjee and Adenaeuer (2014) stated that 60% more than today's food production will have to be maintained by the year 2050 if this criterion is maintained. At the same time, an extra one million hectares of arable land would need to be converted to fields by the same year (Zhang et al., 2018). ...
... Veerappan & Jagadeesh (2014) described the method as a combination of a greenhouse and a skyscraper in cultivating crops through artificial sunlight. Unlike traditional farming, it is purposely designed to take advantage of electricity in controlling many of its parts (Banerjee, 2014). Based on several studies, vertical farming was tested for the purpose of proving its capabilities. ...
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In response to climate change and significant decreases of arable land in developing nations, vertical farming has emerged as a suitable alternative to the conventional method of farming with its use of modern technologies such as LED lights. Since previous literature on this subject had mainly focused on the effects of blue and red lights concerning plant growth, this research paper involved 620 nm (pink light), 550 nm (green light), and the combination of the colors in the color spectrum (white light) to expand the scope of the study. The facilities used for the experiment were a multiple-row vertical setup and a raised bed garden for the conventional setup. These setups were created using recyclable wood and furniture. Measuring tapes and finger-counting were utilized to detail the average height and number of leaves of plants within a specified group. One-way analysis of variance and repeated measures variance was used to show the variance or consistency of each group and significant differences between all groups. The results had depicted pink-colored LEDs to have yielded the best results by the end of the experiment with an average plant height of 10.39 cm and an average leaf number of 3.1. Overall, the vertical farming setups outperformed the conventional farm setup in terms of both mean plant height and number of leaves.
... Gravel beds serve as habitats for nitrifying bacteria, which aid in nutrient cycling and water filtration. (Banerjee & Adenaeuer, 2014;Diver & Rinehart, 2010;Graber, Schoenborn, & Junge-Berberović, 2011;Specht et al., 2015) Solar aquaculture . Based on integrating algae cultures with fish. . ...
Can skyscrapers survive after COVID-19? Can the idea of integrating vertical farming (VF) into vertical architecture support the environmental, economic, and social issues in the post-pandemic era? Answering these questions is the main objective of this study. Therefore, it explores a) the impact of the pandemic on the built environment, especially skyscrapers; b) the challenges facing the survival of skyscrapers; c) the design parameters and main components of VF; and d) the expected feasibility of integrating VF into vertical architecture to reduce the effects of the pandemic. The research concludes that the skyscraper-integrated vertical farming (SIVF) paradigm can create a closed ecosystem that preserves the environment by a) supporting food security, b) improving indoor environmental quality, c) enhancing psychological and physical health, d) saving energy, e) reducing greenhouse gas emissions and releasing oxygen, and f) supporting the local economy. Consequently, the SIVF paradigm can inaugurate an innovative approach that provides insights into new research trends and discoveries. However, further constraints in the adoption of SIVF should be addressed, and collaborations between researchers and multidisciplinary experts must be created to achieve suitable solutions. KEYWORDS COVID-19; skyscrapers; vertical architecture; vertical farming; food security; skyscraper-integrated vertical farming
... Vertical farming (VF) is an agricultural technology that allows for large-scale food produc-tion in highrise buildings by altering ambient conditions and nutrient solutions to hydro-ponic crops utilizing cutting-edge greenhouse methods and technologies. (Abel 2010, Banerjee and Adenaeuer 2014, Despommier 2010, 2011. Vertical farming's main purpose is to produce more food per square meter, hence crops are grown vertically to achieve this. ...
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... Agriculture exists worldwide and allows farmers to grow and improve their crops with available inputs [1]. The agricultural sector plays a significant role for the path of economic development. ...
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... As well as this adaptability to terrain, CEA systems commonly use artificial light to grow crops. Using artificial light allows crops to be stacked in shelf-like growing conditions, thus greatly increasing the production capability of CEA systems for a given area and potentially only physically limited by the structures' housing production (Banerjee and Adenaeuer, 2014). These controlled conditions allow production of a large variety of crops to occur all year round in optimal conditions, and seasonal harvests are no longer required, thus annual production increases substantially in comparison to conventional farming (e.g., Wilson and Finlay, 1995;Barbosa et al., 2015). ...
... All-year-round production also avoids the concentration of activity and production bottlenecks experienced by conventional farming at certain times of the year, such as harvest season. While it has been reported that annual production of certain crops in CEA systems (vertical farming in particular) can exceed 100 times the yield expected from the same area of conventional farming (Banerjee and Adenaeuer, 2014;Benke and Tomkins, 2017), the practicalities of this limit are controlled by economic and structural considerations, based on the crop type and growing methods. Thus, the true potential of CEA systems is difficult to predict, as this will be determined by changing technological availability and economic contexts. ...
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... Vertical farming is seen as a potential solution to increase yield while decreasing resource use and pesticide impacts compared to conventional agriculture [6]. Several authors have indeed reported that vertical farming improves yields as compared to traditional farming, whereas greenhouse farming yields are intermediate [7][8][9][10]. Nevertheless, several difficulties have been pointed out for vertical farming, such ...
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Vertical farming is considered as a potential solution to increase yield while decreasing resource use and pesticide impacts compared to conventional agriculture. However, the profitability of cultivating ordinary leafy green crops with low market prices in vertical farming is debated. We studied the agronomic feasibility and viability of growing a medicinal plant—Euphorbia peplus—for its ingenol-mebutate content in a modified shipping container farm as an alternative crop cultivation system. The impacts of three hydroponic substrates, three light intensities, three plant localizations and two surface areas on E. peplus yield and cost were tested in several scenarios. The optimization of biomass yield and area surface decreased the cultivation cost, with fresh crop cost per kg ranging from €185 to €59. Three ingenol-mebutate extraction methods were tested. The best extraction yields and cheapest method can both be attributed to ethyl acetate at 120 °C, with a yield of 43.8 mg/kg at a cost of €38 per mg. Modeling of the profitability of a pharmaceutical gel based on ingenol-mebutate showed that economic feasibility was difficult to reach, but some factors could rapidly increase the profitability of this production.
... The second one is based on cultivation of plants within a closed setting on nutrient rich mediums, mostly soilless, controlled in a strong technical environment. Due to crop yields from 71 Mg/ha a −1 min to 155 Mg/ha a −1 max [92], it would be possible to produce the whole vegetable production for Germany (average German production from 2015 to 2019 [93]) within an urban setting. Therefore, based on the minimum yield, about 50,937 ha min and, based on maximum yield, about 23,332 ha max of areas would be needed. ...
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... Though not the focus of this review, the proposed newer innovations in UA may reduce production-resource trade-offs, including drip irrigation, smart sensors, and hydroponic systems. In particular, implementing soilless systems such as hydroponics and aquaponics technologies have enabled urban growers around the world to use relatively production-intensive systems that simultaneously minimize use of water and fertilizer [135][136][137]. Studies show that these UA systems are promising, particularly those that can use natural resources available (sunlight) and recycle urban waste (e.g., gray water from buildings). ...
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Urban agricultural systems are a prominent social-ecological system in cities and towns across the world. The multifunctional nature of urban agriculture engenders many benefits to urban residents, from food provision to social cohesion. In addition, many environmental services such as climate regulation and habitat for urban wildlife are supported by these agroecosystems. Both local to landscape management factors including plant diversity and ground cover management influence the provision of ecosystem services. Yet, the management decisions may create trade-offs between and among ecosystem services with the increase in one service potentially reducing the ability of the system to provide another service at a desired level. While there are some services that practitioners may not care to lose as much, for other services, the maintenance of a service will be important, based on the goals of the system. Thus, balancing and sustaining ecosystem services must be carefully considered in ecosystem management decisions. Here, we review ecosystem services (ES) within urban agriculture (UA) with a focus on residential, community, and market garden systems, and how local to landscape management influence ES provision. In addition, we evaluate trade-offs between and across services, for example, between provisioning services (food production) versus other environmental services (regulating, supporting). Finally, we highlight future research directions on ecosystem services and the trade-offs for sustainable urban food production, biodiversity, and natural resource conservation.
... The suitability of VF as a system to provide locally grown food with a reliable high production rate, with high efficiency, and without occupying farmland has been demonstrated in several studies [94,95,[103][104][105]. It has the potential to be used anywhere, and planting can be done at any time regardless of the location of the VF facility or the season [8,106,107]. For example, in Bangladesh, where cyclones occur frequently, an adaptation will be implemented to both increase productivity and reduce the risks posed by natural disasters to conventional farming [108]. ...
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The reduced requirement for nutrients in vertical farming (VF) implies that the potential for lower environmental impact is greater in VF than in conventional farming. In this study, the environmental impacts of VF were evaluated based on a case study of VF for vegetables in Miyagi Prefecture in Japan, where VF has been utilized in post-disaster relief operations in the wake of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) footprints of these VFs were determined and analyzed to quantify the potential reduction in N and P emissions. First, the N and P footprints in conventional farming were calculated. Then, those footprints were compared with three different scenarios with different ratios for food imports, which equate to different levels of food self-sufficiency. The results show a decrease in the N and P footprints with increased prefectural self-sufficiency due to the introduction of VF. In addition to reducing the risks to food supply by reducing the dependence on imports and the environmental impacts of agriculture, further analysis reveals that VF is suitable for use in many scenarios around the world to reliably provide food to local communities. Its low vulnerability to natural disasters makes VF well suited to places most at risk from climate change anomalies.
... To maximize agricultural productivity, growers can manipulate, and optimize environmental conditions, and thus the timing of development, to shift allocation patterns toward desired yield outputs (Loomis et al., 1971;Stearns, 1992;Weiner, 2003Weiner, , 2004. Crops grown indoors are unique in that their environmental conditions, like light quality and quantity and temperature, can be strictly controlled, compared to traditional outdoor farms where productivity is often limited by climatic conditions (Mills, 2012;Arnold, 2013;Banerjee and Adenaeuer, 2014;Barbosa et al., 2015). Photoperiodic crops, plants that align their development with the amount and timing of light they receive (Thomas and Vince-Prue, 1996;Jackson, 2009), require a specific lighting schedule to flower and thus produce harvestable materials. ...
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Cannabis sativa L. is an annual, short-day plant, such that long-day lighting promotes vegetative growth while short-day lighting induces flowering. To date, there has been no substantial investigation on how the switch between these photoperiods influences yield of C. sativa despite the tight correlation that plant size and floral biomass have with the timing of photoperiod switches in indoor growing facilities worldwide. Moreover, there are only casual predictions around how the timing of the photoperiodic switch may affect the production of secondary metabolites, like cannabinoids. Here we use a meta-analytic approach to determine when growers should switch photoperiods to optimize C. sativa floral biomass and cannabinoid content. To this end, we searched through ISI Web of Science for peer-reviewed publications of C. sativa that reported experimental photoperiod durations and results containing cannabinoid concentrations and/or floral biomass, then from 26 studies, we estimated the relationship between photoperiod and yield using quantile regression. Floral biomass was maximized when the long daylength photoperiod was minimized (i.e., 14 days), while THC and CBD potency was maximized under long day length photoperiod for ~42 and 49–50 days, respectively. Our work reveals a yield trade-off in C. sativa between cannabinoid concentration and floral biomass where more time spent under long-day lighting maximizes cannabinoid content and less time spent under long-day lighting maximizes floral biomass. Growers should carefully consider the length of long-day lighting exposure as it can be used as a tool to maximize desired yield outcomes.