10. Estimated levels of creativity, curiosity, and intellect from age 2 to 17 

10. Estimated levels of creativity, curiosity, and intellect from age 2 to 17 

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In an increasingly fast-changing, complex and diverse world, social and emotional skills are becoming ever more important. In this paper we present an overview of literature on social and emotional skills, describing the nature and structure of these skills, their development, malleability and factors that influence them, their cross-cultural compa...

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... Many personality psychologists have explored the structure of personality traits within each Big Five domain, thereby developing hierarchical representations of the Big Five that distinguish between many lower-level facets (e.g., Condon, 2017;McCrae & Costa, 2010;Soto & John, 2017;Stark et al., 2014). Many of these facet-level traits could be translated into corresponding SEB skills, yielding a detailed taxonomy of specific skills (Abrahams et al., 2019;Chernyshenko et al., 2018). For example, both the NEO-PI-3 and BFI-2 Extraversion domains include an assertiveness facet trait that could be reconceptualized as a skill: one's capacity to take charge of a social group and influence group members' behavior. ...
... To identify an inclusive set of facet-level constructs, the first and fifth authors reviewed a selection of hierarchically structured Big Five models and measures: the NEO-PI-3, BFI-2, Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS; Stark et al., 2014), Synthetic Aperture Personality Assessment Personality Inventory (SAPA-PI; Condon, 2017), and OECD framework for social and emotional skills (Chernyshenko et al., 2018). Collectively, these models and measures include 113 facet-level constructs derived using different strategies (e.g., literature reviews, empirical analyses) and intended for different contexts (e.g., basic research, applied assessment). ...
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People differ in their social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) skills: their capacities to maintain social relationships, regulate emotions, and manage goal- and learning-directed behaviors. In five studies using data from seven independent samples (N = 6,309), we address three key questions about the nature, structure, assessment, and outcomes of SEB skills. First, how can SEB skills be defined and distinguished from other kinds of psychological constructs, such as personality traits? We propose that SEB skills represent how someone is capable of thinking, feeling, and behaving when the situation calls for it, whereas traits represent how someone tends to think, feel, and behave averaged across situations. Second, how can specific SEB skills be organized within broader domains? We find that many skill facets can be organized within five major domains representing Social Engagement, Cooperation, Self-Management, Emotional Resilience, and Innovation Skills. Third, how should SEB skills be measured? We develop and validate the Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Skills Inventory (BESSI) to measure individuals’ capacity to enact specific behaviors representing 32 skill facets. We then use the BESSI to investigate the nomological network of SEB skills. We show that both skill domains and facets converge in conceptually meaningful ways with socioemotional competencies, character and developmental strengths, and personality traits, and predict consequential outcomes including academic achievement and engagement, occupational interests, social relationships, and well-being. We believe that this work provides the most comprehensive model currently available for conceptualizing SEB skills, as well as the most psychometrically robust tool available for assessing them.
... Furthermore, since the middle of the last decade, OECD has been focused on social and emotional skills, attending to its "relevance for a wide range of educational, economic and life outcomes" (Chernyshenko, Kankaraš & Drasgow, 2018). To this end, the OECD Education Directorate has launched an international and comparable survey on social and emotional skills to, among others, "help teachers and parents to effectively adapt the pedagogy, parenting and learning environments" to "better access children's current skills sets and their future needs" (OECD, 2015). ...
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Based on network ethnography and social network analysis, this paper takes the Network of Foundations Working for Development (netFWD), created by the OECD in 2012, as an example of an emergent transnational network of global policy actors. By convening some of the world's most important private philanthropy providers, the network is pursuing a new philanthropy rationale in global education governance, more engaged on results, networking, skill development, and evaluation based on standardised data. The results show the OECD's central role in the network, acting as a place of knowledge production and social order, and that netFWD can provide an opportunity to expand new forms of political influence and enactment by international organisations and non-state actors in the global education governance.
... Griffin & Hesketh, 2003; J. L. Huang et al., 2014;Pulakos et al., 2002). L'OCDE fait d'ailleurs le lien entre compétences socio-émotionnelles et traits de personnalité dans une approche développementale, mais pour ce faire les Big Five sont délaissés à l'avantage de caractéristiques d'ordre inférieurs qui se rapprochent de compétences socio-émotionnelles et comportementales (Chernyshenko et al., 2018). Les recherches sur les liens entre le facteur Conscience et la performance adaptative mettent également en évidence l'importance de considérer les différentes facettes de ce trait de personnalité (B. ...
... Cependant, les soft skills sont souvent mentionnées comme des compétences contribuant à l'adaptation des individus dans un contexte plus général (Chernyshenko et al., 2018;Kechagias, 2011 (Pintrich, 1999;Schunk, 2005). ...
Thesis
The links between soft skills, adaptation and performance are widely recognized, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these links have not yet been examined precisely, especially given that the definition and content of soft skills remain unclear. This research begins by gathering the consensual elements on soft skills to propose an updated definition, emphasizing the fact that they are transversal, non-technical competencies and that they can include an implicit part in their implementation and development, underlining the interest of making them explicit. Then we establish a taxonomy of soft skills based on a systematic review of the literature. This taxonomy allows us to corroborate the potential implicit part of soft skills and to highlight the need to clarify their definition. Combined with a survey of experts in organizational transformation, this study conceptually and empirically documents the links between soft skills and adaptive performance. Our second empirical study highlights the positive impact of a soft skills awareness workshop on self-efficacy and adaptive performance in a sample of employees and managers of a large industrial group undergoing transformation. This study supports also the mediating role of self-efficacy on the impact that soft skills awareness has on adaptive performance. Our third study addresses the indirect positive impact that soft skills awareness can have in supporting self-efficacy in transformational stressful periods. It shows that general self-efficacy and self-efficacy concerning soft skills remain stable, are positively related to positive mood and adaptive performance, and negatively linked to negative mood during a longitudinal study of eight weeks of confinement considered as a period of stress and transformation. This study also highlights the mediating effect of positive affect on the positive impact of self-efficacy on adaptive performance. In conclusion, this work stresses the interest of circumscribing soft skills to competencies in order to keep their conceptual and socio-economic relevance. The possibility of a hierarchic taxonomy of soft skills in order to underscore the functional and structural links of this network of skills is discussed. The overlap between soft skills and other psychological constructs, especially constructs that broaden the scope of intelligence (emotional, social and practical intelligence) are discussed as well. The ways in which soft skills awareness can contribute to reduce students’ and professionals’ soft skills deficit are developed. Finally, the contribution of soft skills to the different dimensions of work performance is conceptually synthesized.
... Social-emotional skills are defined by the OECD as a broad range of malleable skills that enable individuals to manage goal-and task-directed behaviors, navigate interpersonal and social situations, and regulate emotions effectively (Chernyshenko et al., 2018;John & De Fruyt, 2015). These skills were organized under a five-dimensional taxonomy similar to the Big Five, given conceptual and practical benefits (see earlier discussion and Abrahams et al., 2019, Soto et al., 2022 for further discussion). ...
... These conceptual similarities between social-emotional skills and personality traits raise the question of how the OECD skill-based approach differs from the Big Five personality traits. Instead of defining a clear conceptual distinction between skills and traits, the OECD framework takes a pragmatic approach and focuses on skills that are changeable through interventions, relevant to school contexts, and important for the future (Chernyshenko et al., 2018;Kankaraš & Suarez-Alvarez, 2019). Here, we highlight several key features of the OECD skill-based approach. ...
... Second, the Big Five domains were used as an organizational framework rather than as aggregatedlevel skills in the OECD framework (Chernyshenko et al., 2018;John & De Fruyt, 2015). A large number of skills and frameworks were reviewed, and the skills that were deemed essential but fell outside of the Big Five framework were considered for inclusion in the OECD framework (Kankaraš et al., 2019). ...
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Social-emotional skills have been shown to be beneficial for many important life outcomes for students. However, previous studies on the topic have suffered from many issues (e.g., consideration of only a small subset of skills, single-informant, and single-cohort design). To address these limitations, this study used a multi-informant (self, teacher, and parent) and multi-cohort (ages 10 and 15 from Finland, N = 5,533) perspective to study the association between 15 social-emotional skills and 20 educational (e.g., school grades), social (e.g., relationships with teachers), psychological health (e.g., life satisfaction), and physical health outcomes (e.g., sleep trouble). Results showed that (a) there was a modest level of inter-rater agreement on social-emotional skills, with the highest agreement between students and parents (mean r = .41); (b) inclusion of multi-informant ratings substantially enhanced the ability of social-emotional skills in predicting outcome variables, with parent- and self-rated skills playing important, unique roles; (c) by modeling skills at the facet-level rather than at the domain-level, we identified the key skills for different outcomes and found significant variation in facets’ predictive utility even within the same domain; (d) although the older cohort showed lower levels of most social-emotional skills (9/15), there were only minor changes in the inter-rater agreement and predictive utility on outcomes. Overall, Self-Control, Trust, Optimism, and Energy were found among the four most important skills for academic and life success. We further identified the unique contribution of each skill for specific outcomes, pointing the way to effective and precise interventions.
... It is more abstract, and it is still difficult to explain its mechanism. Although studies have shown that the emergence and emergence of structural fractals are largely due to the mutual exclusion of hub nodes [20][21][22][23], this explanation is still partial to theory, and it is urgent to describe the fractal characteristics of complex network structures in reality. e researchers applied logical equivalent technology to prefabricated houses, used Tekla to achieve deepening design, collision detection, etc., and proposed the establishment of a prefabricated apartment library and a prefabricated component product library to standardize prefabricated civil structures. ...
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Civil engineering structures are generally large in volume and scale, especially the most commonly used reinforced concrete structures. There are many defects such as micro-cracks and air bubbles inside, and the concrete is easy to crack under tension. The short-gauge length (point) sensor will be affected by local damage and cannot accurately reflect the overall working state of the structure. The long-gauge strain sensing technology can reflect the average strain of the area to be measured when there are local cracks in the structure to be measured and can also be fully deployed on the structure to form a distributed sensor network to comprehensively monitor the entire structure. Therefore, long-gauge length sensing is more suitable for civil engineering structure monitoring. This study mainly focuses on fuzzy systems and introduces a generalized probability decision process model to describe the behavior of such fuzzy systems. The maximum-likelihood scheduling and the minimum-likelihood scheduling are discussed. The corresponding model checking methods for probabilistic linear time properties are final reachability, always reachability, persistent reachability, and repeated reachability, and the advantage of this method is that the verification process of their model checking is transformed into a fuzzy matrix. The model checking problems of generalized likelihood-regular security properties and generalized likelihood-correcting-regular properties are studied, respectively, and their model checking problems are transformed into generalized likelihood linear time properties that are always possible. The failure state of the beam and the displacement of the beam bottom are obtained through the data of each unit sensor. The experimental results show that the sensor can effectively capture the cracks. The measured data of the sensor are relatively accurate. The dynamic test performance of the sensor is studied by the damage monitoring test of the vertical cantilever flat beam. After spectrum analysis, the sensor can accurately obtain the participation coefficient of each mode shape, the recognition result is close to that of the FBG sensor, the frequency recognition error does not exceed 0.2%, and the long-gauge length strain mode of the structure can also be accurately recognized. At the same time, the long-gauge strain mode obtained by the sensor monitoring can accurately locate the damage and can quantitatively identify the damage more accurately.
... Reysen & Katzarska-Miller [21] explained that having global awareness and participating in an environment that praises global citizenship, work as antecedents that mediate the effect on prosocial behaviors, which is consistent with Reimers [22,23] who defined global citizenship as the capacity of empathy and collaboration with people from different national, religious, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. The WEF [3] explained that this global citizen would have a natural concern for global conflict and peace, while for the OECD [24], the competence of a global citizen might respond to the capacity to understand and appreciate intercultural perspectives. According to the United Nations [25], education for the 21st century should advocate for sustainable development through the recognition of cultural diversity, developing a set of 21st competencies for global citizenship. ...
... Las competencias socioemocionales son un conjunto de habilidades y actitudes necesarias a desarrollar en los estudiantes para afrontar los retos del siglo XXI (OECD, 2015). Diferentes informes (Chernyshenko, et al., 2018;Kankaraš & Suarez-Alvarez, 2019) han sido publicados recientemente para orientar la formulación de políticas y fomentar el aprendizaje socioemocional. Uno de los principios pedagógicos establecidos en el artículo 19 de la Ley Orgánica 3/2020 establece que se debe poner especial atención en la educación emocional y, a nivel curricular en España, el Real Decreto 126/2014 incluye en el currículo aspectos socioemocionales y morales, tales como competencias sociales y cívicas. ...
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Los currículos del siglo XXI en numerosos sistemas educativos han incorporado las competencias como nuevo elemento curricular, con el objetivo de potenciar una educación integral, permanente y práctica conectada con el contexto social. Numerosos cambios legislativos en España (Ley Orgánica 2/2006; Ley Orgánica 8/2013; Ley Orgánica 3/2020), documentos y recomendaciones supranacionales (Consejo de la Unión Europea, 2010; 2018; European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2012; Parlamento Europeo y Consejo de la Unión Europea, 2006, Sala et al., 2020), así como propuestas conceptuales y metodológicas (Moya & Luengo, 2010; Pérez-Pueyo et al., 2013; Proyecto Atlántida, 2008), han aparecido en las últimas décadas para contribuir a implantar un currículo por competencias en Educación Primaria. Monarca & Rappoport (2013) señalan que existe una desconexión entre las políticas educativas y las acciones didácticas, y este hecho puede explicar que las competencias no sean implantadas de forma sistemática, continuada y explícita. La implantación de las competencias a través de planificaciones didácticas requiere que se identifiquen de manera previa las relaciones entre las competencias y otros elementos curriculares. En consecuencia, el Marco Teórico revisa la literatura científica para ahondar en el concepto competencia y proponer fundamentos que respalden científicamente el diseño de una planificación didáctica por competencias. Los fundamentos obtenidos han sido concretados en una metodología que ha sido denominada como Aprendizaje Participativo Cíclico. Este método didáctico está basado en las premisas del Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos Cooperativos, pero introduciendo una peculiaridad, entre otras, de que se realiza de manera cíclica durante el curso académico. Los estudiantes se organizan en grupos heterogéneos de tres o cuatro estudiantes durante la realización de una tarea, en la cual cada miembro del grupo tiene asignado un rol. La competencia en comunicación lingüística (Consejo de Europa, 2018) y las competencias socioemocionales y morales (Saarni, 2000) han sido las seleccionadas en esta investigación para su estudio, debido a su importancia para garantizar una adecuada interacción social del alumnado. El objetivo general de la presente Tesis Doctoral es proporcionar evidencias científicas sobre el impacto de una planificación didáctica innovadora en el desarrollo de la competencia en comunicación lingüística, y de las competencias socioemocionales y morales en Educación Primaria. Este objetivo general ha sido concretado en cinco objetivos que han sido agrupados en tres ámbitos de investigación: conocimiento de las competencias, planificación de competencias y evaluación de competencias.
... It seems that primary and secondary education around the world is particularly good at thwarting key components of this notion, such as creativity and curiosity, and these components are much more developed in the early years (Chernyshenko et al., 2018). However, the literature has devoted much less attention to the acquisition of L2L from early childhood. ...
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This text presents a brief literature review on technologies and web-based tools for faculty development. It investigates what resources are available to higher education (HE) teachers to support online professional development (OPD) activities based on feedback, collegial discussion, collaborative reflection or teaching observation. From recent studies we note that collective reflection is effective when technologies are acted and used as a medium for collaborative professional learning, appropriately choosing and aligning technology with education purposes and teachers’ developmental needs, acknowledging the interrelations among technology, content and pedagogy. The paper provides a better understanding of the limits and potential of different technologies and how programmes of online faculty development can be designed to promote dialogical collaborative thinking
... It seems that primary and secondary education around the world is particularly good at thwarting key components of this notion, such as creativity and curiosity, and these components are much more developed in the early years (Chernyshenko et al., 2018). However, the literature has devoted much less attention to the acquisition of L2L from early childhood. ...
Conference Paper
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Learning to learn (L2L), one of Europe’s key competencies, is increasingly central in the post-modern world. International experts define it as a survival tool in the mutable employment landscape, or as a means of self-fulfillment and development in work and domestic life (Stringher, 2014). Citizens should be equipped with this hyper-competence, yet international comparative studies are scarce. It seems that primary and secondary education around the world is particularly good at thwarting key components of this notion, such as creativity and curiosity, and these components are much more developed in the early years (Chernyshenko et al., 2018, 80). However, the literature has devoted much less attention to the acquisition of L2L from early childhood. In our international qualitative study, within a socio-cultural tradition, we intend to start filling in this gap. Our aim is to offer examples of practices conducive to the acquisition of L2L in early childhood. We take a theoretical stance grounded in the international literature and in order to understand how L2L is conceived of in these two preschool systems, we examine normative documents. We analyze nine qualitative interviews with Italian and Mexican preschool teachers within the wider international study. The interview guide tapped L2L in everyday school-life, so to collect preschool teachers’ authentic responses. The methodology is a descriptive, phenomenological content analysis with a focus on teachers’ L2L conceptions, which we classified as wide/narrow according to Hounsell (1979). From our corpus, we searched for theoretical L2L categories, and reported excerpts exemplifying teachers’ L2L conceptions, functions and practices to support L2L acquisition in children aged 3-5. Results show that teachers’ conceptions of L2L vary from wide representations to narrow/vague ones. Even if the sample is qualitative, evidence suggests that teachers with a complex L2L conception show greater quantity and quality of activities favorable to L2L development, although teachers with a narrow conception also implement some L2L-conducive strategies. We interpret this as evidence that L2L is culturally bound. Teachers’ activities foster L2L in different ways: stimulating children’s curiosity, active participation and questioning or promoting their self-confidence and meaning making. We also found high compatibility between the Mexican preschool curriculum and our theoretical L2L framework. Conversely, the Italian preschool curriculum only defines L2L in a footnote. However, the Italian interviewees do show some activities conducive to L2L, although only one in five definitions is wide. We attribute this apparent contradiction to the fact that the Italian preschool curriculum is organized around key experience fields and this didactic organization seems adequate for supporting children’s active exploration and meaning making. However, preschool teachers seem unaware that their didactic practice is also supportive of L2L in early childhood.
... Social and emotional skills (SES) are increasingly recognized as crucial for healthy and inclusive societies (Durlak et al., 2011;McCormick et al., 2020;Taylor et al., 2017). Recent studies have shown that an increase in SES in children and young people is related to a decrease in mental health problems, a decrease in school failure and school dropout, and better living conditions in adult life, such as better jobs, higher income (Chernyshenko & Kankaraš, 2018;Greenberg et al., 2017) and higher social justice (Muñiz, 2020). ...
Article
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Little is known about the emotional experience of children and young people during lockdown, their coping strategies on COVID-19 pandemic context and their influence on the emotional state when dealing with the challenges associated with lockdown. In this study, 1031 children and young people (865 aged 8-15 years old and 166 aged 16-25 years old) answered an online self-report survey, specifically designed to assess the perceived potential contribution of SES learned/developed in the Gulbenkian Academies for Knowledge—a national initiative—in coping with the consequences of the context of the COVID-19 pandemic during the Portugal first lockdown. There are three main findings. First, the prevalent emotional pattern was predominantly negative (53.7%) for the younger participants (most frequent emotions: boredom 66.9%; worry 47.8%) and predominantly positive (52.0%) for the older participants (most frequent emotions: boredom 70.1% and tranquillity 52.6%). Second, school activities (25.2%, 8-15 subsample; 32.7%, 16-25 subsample) and self-knowledge and self-regulation activities/strategies (24.8%, 8-15 subsample; 20.0%, 16-25 subsample) were the most frequently reported by participants from both subsamples and that this has significantly interfered with their emotional state: among 8-15 subsample, they reported feeling more excited, more calm, more optimistic and more hopeful; among 16-25 subsample, they reported feeling more cheered up, more optimistic, more quiet and more hopeful. Culinary and horticultural activities predict about 4% the possibility of feeling hope, sadness, optimism, irritation, and worry (8-15 years old) and school activities contribute about 17% to the explanation of the emotional states of sadness and optimism (16-25 years old). Third, both the younger and the older participants showed a medium-superior level of socio-emotional skills and those SES predict about 20% the possibility of feeling optimistic, irritation, sad, hopeful, and bored (8-15 years old) and about 12% the possibility of feeling sadness (16-25 years old). The potential of social and emotional skills in exceptional circumstances and vulnerabilities are discussed.