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Estimated Releases of Isotopes during the Chernobyl Accident.*

Estimated Releases of Isotopes during the Chernobyl Accident.*

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On March 11, 2011, A 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck the east coast of Japan. The total number of people who died in the earthquake and the tsunami that it generated is still being assessed, but the official estimation already exceeds 14,000.1 The natural disaster also caused substantial damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the cons...

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... Reactor accidents can release a variety of radio- isotopes into the environment. Table 1 lists the radioisotopes that were released during the Cher- nobyl accident. 8 The health threat from each radioisotope depends on an assortment of fac- tors. ...

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... The application of radioactive materials in agriculture research, medicine, and power generation plays a vital role in the economic and technological development of a country. Major applications of nuclear technology include diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases, generation of electricity, archaeology, pollution mitigation, etc. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. Nuclear technology uses different radioactive rays, such as gamma rays, X-rays, and neutrons, that have the potential to cause serious health and environmental problems [10][11][12][13]. ...
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This study aimed to determine how radiation attenuation would change when the thickness , density, and compressive strength of clay bricks, modified with partial replacement of clay by fly ash, iron slag, and wood ash. To conduct this investigation, four distinct types of bricks-normal, fly ash-, iron slag-, and wood ash-incorporated bricks were prepared by replacing clay content with their variable percentages. Additionally, models for predicting the radiation-shielding ability of bricks were created using gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The addition of iron slag improved the density and compressive strength of bricks, thus increasing shielding capability against gamma radiation. In contrast, fly ash and wood ash decreased the density and compressive strength of burnt clay bricks, leading to low radiation shielding capability. Concerning the performance of the Artificial Intelligence models, the root mean square error (RMSE) was determined as 0.1166 and 0.1876 nC for the training and validation data of ANN, respectively. The training set values for the GEP model manifested an RMSE equal to 0.2949 nC, whereas the validation data produced RMSE = 0.3507 nC. According to the statistical analysis, the generated models showed strong concordance between experimental and projected findings. The ANN model, in contrast, outperformed the GEP model in terms of accuracy, producing the lowest values of RMSE. Moreover, the variables contributing towards shielding characteristics of bricks were studied using parametric and sensitivity analyses, which showed that the thickness and density of bricks are the most influential parameters. In addition, the mathematical equation generated from the GEP model denotes its significance such that it can be used to estimate the radiation shielding of burnt clay bricks in the future with ease.
... Maruziyet sonucu oluşan hastalık veya ölüm, hematolojik, gastroistestinal veya cilt sekellerine bağlı olarak gerçekleşir. Kemik iliği ve bağırsak epiteli radyasyonla etkilenim bakımından en duyarlı hücrelerdir (Christodouleas et al., 2011). ...
... Radyoaktif maddenin miktarı, canlıların temas şekli, temas eden kişinin yaşı (bebek, çocuk ve adölesanlar daha riskli grup), maruziyet süresi ve miktarı, maruziyet alanının büyüklüğü, vücudun radyasyona duyarlılığı gibi özellikler radyasyonun insan ya da diğer canlılar için etkisini değiştirmektedir (CDC, 2015; National Cancer Institude, 2011). Örneğin, düşük enerjili gama radyasyonu ve beta cilt tarafından emildiği için cilt lezyonları görülebilirken toplam radyasyon vücut dozu aşırı yüksekliğinde (>20 Gy) akut nörovasküler etkilenmeler oluşabilir (Christodouleas et al., 2011). ...
... Bu ciddi hastalık aşaması birkaç saatten birkaç aya kadar sürebilir. Cilt bulguları ve saç dökülmesi de görülebilir (CDC, 2018; Christodouleas et al., 2011,). ...
... Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors in Japan has established radiation as a risk factor for MN [21][22][23] . Environmental exposure to nuclear power plant accidents has also raised concern 24 . More recently, radiation exposure from abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) imaging has been associated with development of MN 25 . ...
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Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) are a late complication of cytotoxic therapy and are defined as a distinct entity by the World Health Organization. While the link between chemotherapy exposure and risk of subsequent t-MN is well-described, the association between radiation monotherapy (RT) and t-MN risk is less definitive. We analyzed 109 consecutive patients who developed t-MNs after RT and describe latencies, cytogenetic profile, mutation analyses, and clinical outcomes. The most common cytogenetic abnormality was a clonal abnormality in chromosome 5 and/or 7, which was present in 45% of patients. The median latency from RT to t-MN diagnosis was 6.5 years, with the shortest latency in patients with balanced translocations. 1-year overall survival (OS) was 52% and 5-year OS was 22% for the entire cohort. Patients with chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities experienced worse 1-year OS (37%) and 5-year OS (2%) when compared to other cytogenetic groups (p<0.0001). 16 patients underwent NGS; ASXL1 and TET2 were the most commonly mutated genes (n=4). In addition, 17 patients underwent germline variant testing and 3 carried pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants. In conclusion, patients with t-MN after RT monotherapy have increased frequencies of chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities, which are associated with poor overall survival. In addition, pathogenic germline variants may be common in patients with t-MN after RT monotherapy.
... In the future, 137 Cs will continue to be of greater importance, with less attention paid to 90 Sr. Over the longer term (hundreds of years), the plutonium isotopes and 241 Am will remain radioactive, although at levels that are relatively low [9]. ...
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In this paper, we present a useful Monte Carlo (MC)-based methodology that can be utilized to calculate the absorbed dose and the initial levels of complex DNA damage (such as double strand breaks-DSBs) in the case of an environmental ionizing radiation (IR) exposure incident (REI) i.e., a nuclear accident. Our objective is to assess the doses and complex DNA damage by isolating only one component of the total radiation released in the environment after a REI that will affect the health of the exposed individual. More specifically, the radiation emitted by radionuclide 137Cs in the ground (under the individual’s feet). We use a merging of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code (MCNP) with the Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) code. The DNA lesions have been estimated through simulations for different surface activities of a 137Cs ground-based γ radiation source. The energy spectrum of the emitted secondary electrons and the absorbed dose in typical mammalian cells have been calculated using the MCNP code, and then these data are used as an input in the MCDS code for the estimation of critical DNA damage levels and types. As a realistic application, the calculated dose is also used to assess the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) for eight hypothetical individuals, living in different zones around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, exposed to different time periods at the days of the accident in 1986. We conclude that any exposition of an individual in the near zone of Chernobyl increases the risk of cancer at a moderate to high grade, connected also with the induction of complex DNA damage by radiation. Generally, our methodology has proven to be useful for assessing γ rays-induced complex DNA damage levels of the exposed population, in the case of a REI and for better understanding the long-term health effects of exposure of the population to IR.
... Ionizing radiation is well recognized as a causative agent of acute and chronic health problems (e.g., cancers and genetic mutations) that can lead to mortality and morbidity (Brenner and Hall 2007;Christodouleas et al. 2011;Giles et al. 1956;Howe and McLaughlin 1996;Linet et al. 2009Linet et al. , 2012Smith-Bindman 2010;Smith-Bindman et al. 2009;UNSCEAR 2000. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2000). ...
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Evaluating the knowledge of patients attending radiology departments regarding ionizing radiation used in medical imaging and its associated hazards can provide knowledge of the patient’s awareness level of the associated risk of the radiation used in medical imaging. The aims of this study were to evaluate the awareness of patients regarding medical radiation types used in medical diagnostic imaging and its influence on their decision to proceed with that procedure. Over an 8-months period, a total of 418 patients, 48% Men and 52% Women, presenting for diagnostic imaging in the department of radiology, completed a 15-point questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and radiation awareness sections. Less than 32% of the participants had a potential risk of radiation explained by the doctor before the procedure. 59% of the participants expressed that the potential risk of radiation makes them anxious; less than about 25% of the participants showed that the potential risk of radiation affects their decision to have the procedure. Overall, the data collected from this survey indicate that there is a lack of information about radiation risk provided to the patients prior to the diagnostic procedure. Efforts should be made to ensure that patients receiving multiple medical imaging tests are aware of the radiation they are receiving.
... Severe nuclear disasters have caused serious damage at multiple levels, from the molecular to social and national levels [1]. There is little doubt that the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, the Chernobyl NPP accident, and the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident (hereinafter referred to as TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima) are the three major nuclear disasters of the last half century. ...
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Many individuals who were affected by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident continue to face a challenging recovery. We reviewed the long-term mental health consequences of three major nuclear power plant accidents: the Three Mile Island (TMI, 1979), Chernobyl (1986), and Fukushima (2011) nuclear disasters. We examined the relevant prospective cohort studies and before-and-after studies that covered more than two timepoints, searching four databases (PubMed, Ichushi, PsyArticles, and PTSDPub). We identified a total of 35 studies: TMI, n = 11; Chernobyl, n = 6; and Fukushima, n = 18. The smaller numbers of early-phase studies (within 6 months) of the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters may also indicate the chaotic situation at those timepoints, as large-scale interviews were conducted in the early phase after the TMI disaster. Although the patterns of effects on mental health outcomes were diverse, more than half of the participants in the studies we evaluated were categorized into low or under-threshold symptom groups in all three disasters. Across the three disasters, the radiation exposure level estimated by the proximity and stigma were the common risk factors for mental health outcomes. Our findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the impact of the worst nuclear accidents in history on the affected individuals’ mental health, and our results illustrate the longitudinal consequences of such disasters. View Full-Text
... Agricultural products may lead to unacceptable levels of radionuclides in food. However, unlike other man-made or natural accidents, they-depending on the level of the radioactive contamination-have long term serious impacts on the environment and human health (Christodouleas et al., 2011). It is estimated that their impacts on the environment will last hundreds of years (Blakemore, 2019): which means even unborn baby and non-human world may suffer from radioactive contamination. ...
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Nuclear energy is one of the most important components of the world electricity supply in today's world. It provides approximately 21% of electricity in OECD countries. However, there has been a growing social and academic debate over the use of nuclear energy because the fact that there have been serious incidents and accidents at nuclear power stations indicates that the security risk associated with NPPs is not low. Particularly major nuclear accidents, Fukushima and Chernobyl, can cause the release of radiation into the environment. However, environmental contamination is not shared equally among people who trigger environmental injustice issues. There has been no comprehensive research that investigates nuclear accidents from the perspective of environmental justice theory so far. The main purpose of this study is to argue whether or not nuclear accidents cause environmental injustice. The results show that the major nuclear accident, the Chernobyl, has caused distributive and intergenerational environmental injustice.
... During the two major nuclear plant accidents, Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima in 2011, huge amounts of radioactive iodine were released in the atmosphere [1][2][3][4][5][6]. The exact magnitude and the nature of the radioactive iodine contamination are not precisely known in the case of atmospheric contamination. ...
... Radioactive isotopes of iodine, 131-I, 133-I, and 132-I may contaminate populations through inhalation and ingestion of fresh contaminated foods that are produced locally (vegetables and mainly milk); iodine is concentrated by the thyroid gland that weights from 1 g in young children up to 20 g in adults and for up to 100% of the amount of Fig. 1 Spatial distribution of radiation doses to the thyroid gland of children and adolescents following the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia (from UNSCEAR 2011 report) Endocrine radioactive iodine present in the body in case of iodine deficiency due to low alimentary intake of iodine; radioactive isotopes of iodine and in particular 131-I may thus deliver high radiation doses to the thyroid tissue that are 100-10,000-fold higher than doses delivered to other organs [2,3] (Tables 2 and 3). With respect to the short half-life of radioactive iodine isotopes (8.02 days for 131-I), the risk of contamination persisted only for some weeks after the accident. ...
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Purpose: After the accidents of nuclear power plants at Chernobyl and at Fukushima, huge amounts of radioactive iodine were released into the atmosphere. Methods: We reviewed data on the health consequences of these accidents with a focus on thyroid consequences. Results: Among the 2 million children who were living in highly contaminated regions in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, 7000 cases of thyroid cancer had occurred in 2005. This is the most significant radiation-induced consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The increased incidence of thyroid cancer observed in adult population who lived in these highly contaminated regions is at least in major part related to screening and it is not possible to individualize among these thyroid cancers those that are potentially caused by radiation exposure. For populations who lived outside these regions at the time of the accident, there is no detectable consequence of the radiation exposure on the thyroid gland. Among children who lived nearby the Fukushima power plant in 2011, there is currently no evidence of an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Ultrasonography screening in these individuals detected a number of thyroid cancers that are probably not related to the accident. Because thyroid cancer is frequent, studies have been carried out to distinguish radiation-induced from their sporadic counterparts, and genomic signatures might be helpful. Conclusions: The consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly demonstrate that populations living nearby a nuclear power plant should be protected in case of accident by sheltering, food restrictions and prophylaxis of thyroid irradiation by potassium iodine administration, if the predicted estimated dose to the thyroid gland of children might be >50 mGy. These countermeasures should be applied in priority to children, adolescents and pregnant women; they are safe and effective.
... Historical radiation exposure incidents such as nuclear bombing over Japan during World War II, Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, Mayapuri radiation exposure in India, and Fleurus accident of Belgium indicate higher chances of partial body or non-uniform exposure [1][2][3][4] . Sometimes radiation over-exposure accidents during theranostic modalities may also result in heterogeneous, total or partial body exposures, which may lead to acute radiation syndrome with as low as 0.5 Gy dose of radiations resulting in ARS or acute radiation syndrome 5,6 . ...
... Group 2 was exposed to 15 Gy localized irradiation. Mice were sacrificed at different time points (1,2,4,7,10,15,20,25, and 30 days) post treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell marker CD 34 and Sca1 were measured on 1, 4, 7, and 10th day post-irradiation. ...
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Current models to study the hematopoietic syndrome largely rely on the uniform whole-body exposures. However, in the radio-nuclear accidents or terrorist events, exposure can be non-uniform. The data available on the non-uniform exposures is limited. Thus, we have developed a mice model for studying the hematopoietic syndrome in the non-uniform or partial body exposure scenarios using the localized cobalt60 gamma radiation exposure. Femur region of Strain ‘A’ male mice was exposed to doses ranging from 7 to 20 Gy. The 30 day survival assay showed 19 Gy as LD100 and 17 Gy as LD50. We measured an array of cytokines and important stem cell markers such as IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF, TNF-α, G-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β, CD 34 and Sca 1. We found significant changes in IL-6, GM-CSF, TNF-α, G-CSF, and IL-1β levels compared to untreated groups and amplified levels of CD 34 and Sca 1 positive population in the irradiated mice compared to the untreated controls. Overall, we have developed a mouse model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome that might be useful for understanding of the non-uniform body exposure scenarios. This may also be helpful in the screening of drugs intended for individuals suffering from radiation induced hematopoietic syndrome.
... The effects of radiation on human health can have both short-and long-term effects (Christodouleas et al. 2011). At high doses of radiation, the liquidators of the consequences of the accident encountered cancer; there is a quick death of tissues important for the body, primarily red bone marrow, which refers to the hematopoiesis system (Thomas and Symond 2016). ...