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Establishment success of recorded alien species including non-valid records. 

Establishment success of recorded alien species including non-valid records. 

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This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic gr...

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... total of 963 species have been reported as aliens from the Mediterranean until Decem- ber 2005, 218 of which are classified as ex- cluded and 745 as valid species among which 98 as questionable (Fig. 1). The species re- tained as aliens in this study belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups rich in species. In the lists that fol- low, the establishment success within each group is provided with no further comments for the species established and those with casual ...

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... Some of the studies are reviews and some contribute to the literature empirically. Although it is difficult to physically detect and track these alien species in invasive alien research, researchers put forward various assumptions about the effects of alien species on the seas and the fight against these species (Zenetos et al., 2005;Galil, 2007;Brundu, 2015;Peyton et al., 2019;Bonanno and Orlando-Bonaca, 2019;Kourantidou et al., 2021). Invasive alien marine species firstly affect fishermen in the context of blue economy. ...
... Considering the negative impact of alien marine species on human health and the threat to biodiversity, it is an important issue to be analyzed. Zenetos et al. (2005) investigated invasive alien marine species in Mediterranean Sea. They analyzed 963 invasive alien marine species which were recorded until December 2005. ...
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Purpose This study aims to explore the risk level of pufferfish and lionfish by comparing them among Turkish marines. In addition, this study focuses on comparing pufferfish with lionfish to determine which one is more dangerous for marine economics in Türkiye. Design/methodology/approach This study employs descriptive content analysis to give some qualitative evidence for the related literature. As a sample case, Türkiye was selected in the context of being a country in the Mediterranean Basin. By reviewing recent news, reports and publications, this study firstly will conclude how invasive alien marine species affect Turkish marines. Then, pufferfish and lionfish will be compared together to determine the risk level of these species for Turkish marine economics. Findings As a result of descriptive findings, it is seen that captured fishery has been declined in Turkey recently due to many factors including climate change, global warming, overfishing, environmental pollution and attack of invasive alien species. Pufferfish and lionfish are seen as the most spread marine species in Turkish marines. When comparing pufferfish with lionfish, it is seen that pufferfish is more dangerous than lionfish for Turkish marine economics. Research limitations/implications This study provides descriptive and original findings as a result of comparison of pufferfish and lionfish due to their impact on Turkish marine economy. It is thought to give useful importation for the fight against invasive alien marine species in the Mediterranean Basin. Future studies can investigate different invasive alien marine species and their impacts on marine economics in the Mediterranean Basin. Practical implications Based on the Turkish cases, it is determined that there should be different policies for fight against invasive alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Each marine species has different impacts on seafood market. Some of marine species can be consumed as a seafood product but some of them can't be consumed that policy makers should develop other strategies such as catching them to reduce their population in the local marines. Social implications The spread of invasive alien marine species is still continuing in the Mediterranean Basin. Each country has been affected by the attack of invasive alien marine species. To keep sustainable seafood market and marine economics, countries should both implement common policies and develop policies specific to threats in their own countries. Originality/value This study reveals key points in the rise of invasive alien marine species in Turkish marines at first. The main contribution of this study is to be a recent sample for a country which is under attack by invasive alien marine species by giving a comparison of pufferfish and lionfish.
... The new events recorded in the last five-year period (2017)(2018)(2019)(2020)(2021)(2022) [7,8,9,10,11] and reported as rare. ...
... They show the highest diversity in tropical areas [3,4], where they reach maximum abundances of 10 5 cells g −1 fw [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Their presence in temperate latitudes is considered recent [16,17]. It is therefore remarkable that in temperate regions they can reach considerably higher abundances than in tropical regions (up to 10 6 cells g −1 fw [18,19]). ...
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Intense blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis producing palytoxin (PlTX) analogs, mainly ovatoxins (OVTXs), have been a recurrent phenomenon along several Mediterranean coasts. Although there is evidence of seafood contamination by these toxins, the dynamics of their bioaccumulation during Ostreopsis blooms is not yet clear. Toxin concentrations in wild mussels at two sites in the Conero Riviera, along the northern Adriatic Sea (Portonovo and Passetto), were analyzed from August to October 2021, throughout an Ostreopsis cf. ovata bloom, to investigate their relationships with the bloom pattern and abundances. Contaminated mussels showed the typical toxin profile dominated by OVTX-a and -b, with levels lower than the threshold considered unsafe for human consumption (30 µg PlTX-equivalent kg−1 soft tissue). The toxin content reached 36.4 µg PlTX kg−1 soft tissue only in a single sampling date. A clear correlation between the bioaccumulation of OVTXs in mussels and the abundance of Ostreopsis was observed. Our results highlighted, however, that bioaccumulation in the mussels is not affected merely by the abundance of toxic microalgae, since higher toxin levels were recorded at Portonovo, where the cell abundances were lower than at Passetto. The results from this study indicate that the Italian guidelines for the management of Ostreopsis blooms in bathing waters are also useful in managing the risks of human intoxication through ingestion, as mussel contamination was detected only during the alert phase (10,000–30,000 cells L−1).
... The first record of the non-indigenous genus Isognomon [Lightfoot], 1786 in the Mediterranean Sea is due to Mienis (2004), who reported on an unspecified number of Isognomon ephippium (Linnaeus, 1758) specimens collected in Israel. Later, Zenetos et al. (2005) and Galil (2007) questioned the occurrence of this species, as it was recorded only once on an oil platform from the Red Sea. Still in Israel, a single initially undetermined "Hammer or Tree oyster" shell, was found in 2015 and, based on the iconography of Oliver (1992: 67, plt 10, figs. ...
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The introduction rate of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is rapidly growing, and their taxonomical identification is increasingly challenging. This uncertain identification often leads to an incorrect estimation of the number of alien species, their route of introduction, and their potential negative effects. This is particularly true for some bivalves, which are characterized by high variation in their shells, resulting in uncertain morphological identification. This is the case for two alien bivalves, i.e., an Isognomonidae and a Malleidae species, both characterized by confused historical colonization records in the Mediterranean Sea, misidentifications, and controversial and changing nomenclatures that have insofar negatively affected our knowledge on their geographical distributions. In this respect, molecular approaches provide a strategy that is especially useful when traditional taxonomy fails, and DNA barcoding is a powerful and well-known tool to obtain reliable identifications through efficient molecular markers. In this work, we used the 16S rRNA marker to assess the preliminary identification of Isognomon sp. and Malleus sp. specimens from different localities in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods were applied to test the monophyly of the phylogenetic linages and to clarify their taxonomic positions, allowing a complete overview of the colonization and spreading of these two alien bivalves in the Mediterranean Sea. In particular, the Isognomon sp. specimens were identified as the Atlantic I. bicolor, highlighting that previously suggested invasive migration patterns, (i.e., the Lessepsian migration), must be reconsidered with stronger critical attention in light of currently occurring global changes.
... Unfortunately, there is no information about its introduction pathway. It was initially considered a NIS in the Mediterranean Sea (Zenetos et al., 2005); however, Zenetos et al. (2018) removed it from the alien species list (i.e., data base consisting on species whose presence is due to intentional or unintentional introduction resulting from human activities) and considered it a range expanding species which naturally entered the Mediterranean Sea via the Strait of Gibraltar. This hypothesis is, however, questionable since the first record of this species in the Mediterranean (i.e., Levant Basin, Israel) is located very far from the Strait of Gibraltar and no records of this species have so far been reported in the western Basin. ...
Article
Considering the rapid diffusion and potential impacts of invasive non-indigenous species on biodiversity, it is crucial to investigate invasion mechanisms to identify their spread, settlement, and expansion areas. Enchelycore anatina, the Atlantic fangtooth moray of uncertain introduction pathway, recently invaded the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, specimens of E. anatina were observed in the Strait of Messina (Sicily), during 2017–2018 and records were reported. Through ecological indicators elaborated with Geographic Information System spatial–temporal statistics, E. anatina spatial–temporal distribution in the Mediterranean Sea was examined. Evidence of non-occasional presence of this species in that area has been confirmed by the spatial statistics that suggested an established population in the central Mediterranean Sea and settlement areas along the Turkish, Levantine, and Sicilian Ionian coast. The resulting spatial structure suggested its human-mediated introduction. The ecological indicators used in this study proved to be useful for the comprehension of the invasion history of E. anatina and might be applied to disentangle the history of other invasive species
... While the Mediterranean Sea is considered a hotspot for biodiversity, it is also highly affected by invasions of allochthonous organisms. This tendency has increased in the last decades, especially in the European Atlantic and Mediterranean waters, as suggested by the growing literature that has been published on this issue lately [7][8][9][10][11]. This problematic threat is favored by the abundant presence of lagoons, estuaries, and marinas [12]; favorable geographic and climatic conditions [13]; and intense human activity [10]. ...
... After its description, F. ghanensis was recorded only twice: Ben Souissi et al. [55] reported a high number of specimens from Rade's Harbor (Tunisia) and Tamsouri Polycerella emertoni was originally described by Verrill [56] (1880) from Connecticut. This species has a widespread distribution [28], being reported as common from Massachusetts to Brazil [57] and having been reported from Agadir, Morocco [28], at Thema Harbor, Ghana [58], along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula [59][60][61][62][63], and in the Mediterranean Sea from Alfacs bay, Ebro Delta, (Spain) [64], Fusaro lake, and the Tuscany coasts of Italy [65,66], Malta [67,68], Greece [7,69], and Tunisia [70]. The external morphology of the collected Polycerella individuals is coherent with those reported in the original description and in the following published papers focused on this species ( Figure 2C), leaving no doubt on its morphological identification. ...
Article
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Mediterranean marine fauna is constantly changing due to the entry of non-indigenous (NI) species and the loss of endemic biodiversity. In this framework, it is very important to monitor this constant change and investigate possible new pathways of dispersion. Marinas and ports are considered key stations to detect and study some important ecological aspects, such as NI and invasive species, the effects of climate change, and pollution. Here, we reported the case of a group of NI species that presumably reached the Mediterranean Sea together, each of them being ecologically associated with one another. The bryozoan Amathia verticillata and the sea slugs Favorinus ghanensis and Polycerella emertoni were found in the shallow waters of Fezzano’s marina in the gulf of La Spezia (Ligurian Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Molecular analyses were carried out to exclude cryptic diversity and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships occurring between closely related taxa. The spreading of these two NI sea slugs into the Mediterranean Sea was confirmed and the first record of P. emertoni from the Ligurian Sea reported. These findings shed some light on the poorly known ecology of these species that could be useful for future monitoring and conservation strategies.
... Complete inventories of polychaete species in the Mediterranean have been carried out mainly by Dauvin et al. (2006) for the Mediterranean coast of France, Campoy (1982) for the Mediterranean coast of Spain, Castelli et al. (2008) for Italy, Çınar et al. (2014a) for Turkey, Mikac (2015) for the Adriatic Sea, Faulwetter et al. (2017) for Greece and Bakalem et al. (2020) for Algeria. Since the first inventory by Zibrowius (1992), many articles have been published on Mediterranean introduced species not only in regional terms (Occhipinti-Ambrogi et al., 2011;Simboura et al., 2010) but also at the scale of the whole Mediterranean Sea (Galil, 2009;Galil et al., 2018;Zenetos et al., 2005Zenetos et al., , 2008Zenetos et al., , 2010Zenetos et al., , 2012Zenetos et al., , 2017Zenetos et al., , 2022. ...
... The NIS polychaetes of Tunisian waters are studied here according to their establishment success and classified according to categories (casual, established, questionable or cryptogenic) defined by Zenetos et al. (2005Zenetos et al. ( , 2011Zenetos et al. ( , 2017; these categories have been taken up by many authors such as Faulwetter et al. (2017), and Bakalem et al. (2020). ...
... The original status of the NIS and any changes, as well as their geographical distribution, are presented and discussed based on the available data on these species in the Mediterranean (Castelli et al., 2008;Çinar et al., 2014a, b;Mikac 2015;Zenetos et al., 2005Zenetos et al., , 2011Zenetos et al., , 2017Faulwetter et al., 2017;López & Richter, 2017;Langeneck et al., 2020;Zenetos & Galanidi, 2020;Zenetos et al., 2022). Table 1 presents the first occurrence of species in Tunisian waters, but only for non-native species and native species newly reported after the last inventory by Ayari et al. (2009). ...
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Polychaete diversity in Tunisian waters as of 2021: an update with special emphasis on Non-Indigenous species RAKIA Abstract The last inventory of Tunisian polychaetes diversity by Ayari et al. (2009) is updated. New records were acquired from the literature and from the current study concerning species collected in the tidal channels of the Gulf of Gabès (2016-2017) and the re-examination of some species deposited in the collection of the Tunisian National Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies. This inventory, reviewing the taxonomy, nomenclature and biogeographic distribution of the Tunisian polychaetes, includes 390 species belonging to 52 families, among which the Serpulidae (41 species) and Syllidae (36 species) are the most diverse. In total, 37 species previously reported are currently removed from the Tunisian polychaetes list. An additional 121 new species are added, including 23 species collected in the tidal channels and 6 species in the reference collection previously misidentified as their con-geners. Morphological differences between the latter are briefly discussed and figured. Among these species, Laonice bahusiensis, Laonice norgensis and Scolelepis neglecta are extending their Mediterranean distribution, while Sternaspis thalassemoides and Caulleriella mediterranea are probably reported for the first time after their original description. In addition, this current inventory allows us to discuss the establishment status of 17 Non-Indigenous polychaete species (14 established, 1 casual and 2 cryptogenic) found in Tunisian waters.
... Photomicrographs were taken with a Nikon Digital Sight DS-L1 camera mounted on a Nikon SMZ-U stereomicroscope. The species status was assigned following the guidelines of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the criteria of Zenetos et al. (2005Zenetos et al. ( , 2010Zenetos et al. ( , 2012Zenetos et al. ( , 2020 and Tsiamis et al. (2019), regarding their status (i.e., native, alien, invasive or cryptogenetic). Invasive species are a subset of alien species , so in the results of this study we will refer to alien species with a reported invasive behaviour as "invasive", and we will use "alien" for those alien species with no reported invasive behaviour. ...
Article
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Ports and marinas are gateways for introduction of non-indigenous species through ‘shipping’ worldwide. These anthropogenic environments concentrate a variety of artificial structures and substrates that are colonized by different types of organisms, being prone to biological invasions. One the most outstanding taxa in European marinas and ports are the mussels of the genus Mytilus. Mussels live in patches forming a three-dimensional, multi-layered and permanent biosubstrate that favours the settlement of sessile and mobile fauna, creating a perfect environment for the establishment and development of different species. In this study we characterized the biodiversity associated to the mussel patches of M. galloprovincialis in the Marina of Gijón (northern Spain, Cantabrian Sea), according to their status (i.e., native, introduced or alien, invasive and cryptogenic). The samples were collected from different areas of the marina: the outer dock (with national and international traffic), the middle dock and the inner one (both with local and national transit). We identified a total of 102 species associated to M. galloprovincialis, from which 13 and 4 species were invasive and alien respectively. The exotic fanworm Branchiomma luctusoum is reported for the first time in the Bay of Biscay and the Cantabrian Sea. The inner dock was the area with the highest number of non-indigenous taxa. Most of the alien and invasive species belonged to the groups Ascidiacea and Bryozoa, all of them filter feeders with great plasticity and ecological tolerance. Furthermore, the elemental composition microanalysis of the invasive bryozoan Watersipora subatra showed high levels of aluminium (a common element in marinas, being present in the fuel and in ship paintings), which may imply a risk of aluminium bioaccumulation in the environment. From these results we can conclude that mussel patches may facilitate the settlement and development of non-indigenous species in marinas, highlighting the importance of monitoring these mussel aggregations as a management tool for the early control and prevention of marine bioinvasions.
... shallow soft bottom habitats close to ports, are more subjected to species invasions than others. ALEX builds on the categorization of Zenetos et al. [151] and classifies species into four groups: Native species (Group I), Casual alien species (Group II), Established alien species (Group III), and Invasive alien species (Group IV). The percentages of abundance of each group within each sample are added for the calculation of this metric; the values of this index range from 0, for a community where no alien species are present, to 5, for a community totally invaded by alien species. ...
Chapter
Soft bottom benthic communities are among the most important ecosystem components, since they affect biogeochemical cycling and they support the ecosystem’s integrity and health. Undoubtedly, they have earned their place in the current legislation on protection and conservation of biodiversity. However, the descriptors that have been incorporated in the legislation cannot describe sufficiently all the aspects of soft bottom benthic communities. In addition, despite their importance, there is a knowledge gap as far as investigations in the Aegean Sea are concerned. A combination of all the available tools will enhance future studies and provide an overall, high quality assessment of soft bottom benthic communities in the Aegean Sea.
... This polychaete is native to Indo-Pacific waters, where it can be found from Japan to India. The species was first registered in the Mediterranean in 1983 (Bogdanos and Fredj, 1983), although some claim the identification is questionable (Read, 2000;Zenetos et al., 2005). However, the species was also registered by Chainho et al. (2008) in the Mira and Tagus estuaries, Portugal in 2003. ...
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The present work aims to identify changes in the macroinvertebrate community of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) due to improvements in water quality and to climate change. Data was collected over a period of 16 years (1998–2014) from different sites located along the estuarine gradient. The AZTI Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) was used to assess the ecological quality status based on benthic invertebrate communities and identify possible variations associated with changes in water quality. The overall distribution of each species was examined to detect possible changes associated with climate, based on species’ affinity for more temperate or subtropical climates. Results demonstrate that there was an overall improvement of AMBI scores during the assessment period. The analysis of the geographical distribution of benthic species seems to indicate that there has been an increase of species which prefer subtropical climates in the shallower waters of the estuary, whereas in the deeper estuarine sections the propensity is for species that prefer temperate climates.