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Epicormic shoots on the boles of ash trees; A) and B) newly sprouted shoots on woodlot trees, C) at the base of the bole on a plantation-grown tree, and D) on the bole and roots of a suburban tree.

Epicormic shoots on the boles of ash trees; A) and B) newly sprouted shoots on woodlot trees, C) at the base of the bole on a plantation-grown tree, and D) on the bole and roots of a suburban tree.

Citations

... Despite strategies implemented by the United States and Canadian governments to limit the spread of this pest Duan et al. 2012;Herms and McCullough 2014), the EAB is now found in 35 American states and five Canadian provinces (Emerald ash Borer information network 2020). New infestations of ashes are challenging to detect, and symptoms generally do not appear until the trees are severely infested (Lyons et al. 2007). Among the strategies used to control the pests' spread, microbiological approaches are expected to increase because they are safer than chemical insecticides (Starnes, Liu and Marrone 1993;Mascarin andJaronski 2016, Chattopadhyay, Banerjee andMukherjee 2017). ...
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The gut microbial communities of beetles play crucial roles in their adaptive capacities. Environmental factors such as temperature or nutrition naturally affect the insect microbiome, but a shift in local conditions like the population density on a host tree could also lead to changes in the microbiota. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic wood borer that causes environmental and economic damage to ash trees in North America. This study aimed to describe the taxonomic structure of the EAB gut microbiome and explore its potential relationship with borer population size. The number of EAB adults collected per tree through a 75 km transect from an epicenter allowed the creation of distinct classes of population density. The Gammaproteobacteria and Ascomycota predominated in bacterial and fungal communities respectively, as determined by sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal internal transcribed spacer ITS2. Species richness and diversity of the bacterial community showed significant dependence on population density. Moreover, α-diversity and β-diversity analysis revealed some indicator amplicon sequence variants suggesting that the plasticity of the gut microbiome could be related to the EAB population density in host trees.
... Some ash trees were missing tags, and had to successfully be distinguished from other species. In these cases, ash were distinguished from other tree species by their opposite branching, "braided" bark, highly veined leaf scars, stout twigs, and "scaly" buds (Lyons, et al., 2007). As data collection took place during the winter, tree identification was carried out without observation of leaf shape. ...
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The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, poses great risk to Canada’s ash trees (Fraxinus spp.); it threatens forested areas, urban shade trees, and manufacturing and shipping industries. EAB interferes with interactions of native species and have the potential to initiate ecosystem-wide cascades. This study assesses the current state of EAB infestation at McMaster Forest Teaching and Research Facility and attempts to elucidate relationships between EAB incidence and ecological factors. Ash trees were selected using stratified random sampling within pre-existing habitat classes. Selected trees were surveyed for evidence of EAB infestation. In addition, tree location, diameter at breast height (DBH), height of lowest exit holes, and visual assessments of tree health were recorded. Results do not indicate a clear effect of ecological land classification on EAB infestation across the McMaster Forest. Evidence of EAB activity is prevalent throughout the Forest and across all surveyed land classes: deciduous forest, deciduous woodland, mixed plantation, mixed forest, and deciduous shrub thicket. Data suggest that insect-foraging bird damage may be a useful indicator for future assessment of EAB infestation. The results of this study highlight the current state of EAB infestation in McMaster Forest, solidify some principles of the visual techniques used to assess EAB infestation, and provide insight into EAB distribution in relation to several ecological factors.
... At that early stage of colonisation, infested trees are mostly asymptomatic because injury is inconspicuous and limited primarily to larval feeding (Cappaert et al. 2005;Poland and McCullough 2006;Ryall et al. 2011): A. planipennis larvae feed and develop underneath the bark leaving a characteristic serpentine gallery on the outer sapwood of branches and the bole (Wilson and Rebek 2005;Marshall et al. 2011;Foelker et al. 2013). As colonisation progresses, attacks spread to the lower bole and more obvious signs (adult exit holes), and symptoms (bark deformities such as splits and cracks, epicormic shoots, and crown dieback) of infestation appear Poland and McCullough 2006;Lyons et al. 2007). ...
... Thus, knowledge of the gallery density in branches at which infested F. pennsylvanica trees of various ages or sizes can recover if treated could help practitioners select the most appropriate option (e.g., no action this year, inject with insecticide, or fell and chip) and plan the timing of these treatments. This knowledge would also remove the need to wait for the appearance of symptoms of decline, which typically appear a few years after galleries are created (Lyons et al. 2007), before making a decision on whether early remedial treatment is necessary, possible or effective. Whether a comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment estimates of larval gallery/m 2 of branch surface area within a tree targeted for treatment, rather than from surrounding trees (McCullough et al. 2011), could improve assessment of insecticide efficacy without compromising tree health remains to be determined. ...
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Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is causing extensive mortality of ash ( Fraxinus Linnaeus; Oleaceae) in North America. Once detected in an area, resource managers require methods to obtain estimates that could improve management decisions. We studied the within-crown and within-branch distribution and abundance of A. planipennis feeding galleries by sampling 3-m-long branches from asymptomatic urban ash trees and subdividing each branch into 12 sections of 25 cm each. We found galleries in all 12 sections of some, but not all, branches. Section was a significant source of variation in A. planipennis gallery density/m 2 of branch surface area. A comparison of predictive power and efficiency of estimates for samples of increasing length, and for samples of the same length but consisting of different combinations of sections, revealed that those based on the two basal 25-cm sections of a branch from the lower-crown or mid-crown of an asymptomatic tree were less accurate and precise than those based on more sections, but were the most cost effective. Whittling more sections per branch, irrespective of the combinations of branch sections per length, improved predictive power but reduced cost effectiveness. We also observed that crown level was not important, and aspect was only marginally so, when estimating gallery abundance per sampled branch.
... Since its discovery near Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, the beetle has spread across the eastern United States of America and southern Canada (United States Department of Agriculture 2013) with increasingly devastating impact on the health of eastern North America's native ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae) species) trees. Infestations of this beetle ultimately lead to the death of the host tree, so that in large parts of southwestern Ontario, Canada and southern Michigan, United States of America, the once-dominant mature ash trees are all but gone (Lyons et al. 2007; Anulewicz et al. 2008; Marshall et al. 2010). After the decline of native elms, ash species (particularly green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) have become the dominant trees planted in our urban environments (Lyons et al. 2007). ...
... Infestations of this beetle ultimately lead to the death of the host tree, so that in large parts of southwestern Ontario, Canada and southern Michigan, United States of America, the once-dominant mature ash trees are all but gone (Lyons et al. 2007; Anulewicz et al. 2008; Marshall et al. 2010). After the decline of native elms, ash species (particularly green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) have become the dominant trees planted in our urban environments (Lyons et al. 2007). Thus, EAB also has a significant effect on urban canopies resulting in costly removal of hazardous trees. ...
... Successful management requires effective early detection tools because once trees show signs of dieback the infestation is often well established and there is little that can be done to control the pest (Marchant 2007 ). Early infestations of EAB are difficult to detect because the adult beetles are often active high in the canopy and larvae feed (and pupate) below the bark (Cappaert et al. 2005; Lyons et al. 2007; United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 2011). Although a variety of detection methods are currently employed and pheromone-baited sticky traps have improved considerably since 2002 (Crook and Mastro 2010; Ryall et al. 2012), each survey method has limitations (Marshall et al. 2005; Marshall et al. 2010; Ryall et al. 2011). ...
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The beetle-hunting wasp, Cerceris fumipennis Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae), native to eastern North America, provisions its subterranean nest almost exclusively with adult metallic wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), including the destructive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB). This wasp provides a unique opportunity to survey indigenous and nonindigenous buprestid diversity. We discuss the accessibility, sustainability, and productivity of C. fumipennis with respect to its application as a buprestid surveying and monitoring tool.
... A variety of survey methodologies have been developed for detection of A. planipennis, but each method has limitations. Visual surveys for A. planipennis rely on detection of signs and symptoms of attack (e.g., exit holes and galleries, woodpecker or squirrel foraging, epicormic branches, crown decline, bark cracks) (de Groot et al. 2006, Lyons et al. 2007, Smitley et al. 2008) and likely will detect only heavily-infested trees, thus failing to detect incipient populations. Trees suspected of infestation can be sampled by removing a 10 by 10 cm ÔwindowÕ of bark (hereafter referred to as Ôtrunk windowsÕ) from the main stem at breast height (1.3 m) to look for A. planipennis life stages and galleries (de Groot et al. 2006, Lyons et al. 2007, Metzger et al. 2007, Storer et al. 2007) but these trunk windows are esthetically damaging and their efÞcacy at detecting A. planipennis is unknown. ...
... Visual surveys for A. planipennis rely on detection of signs and symptoms of attack (e.g., exit holes and galleries, woodpecker or squirrel foraging, epicormic branches, crown decline, bark cracks) (de Groot et al. 2006, Lyons et al. 2007, Smitley et al. 2008) and likely will detect only heavily-infested trees, thus failing to detect incipient populations. Trees suspected of infestation can be sampled by removing a 10 by 10 cm ÔwindowÕ of bark (hereafter referred to as Ôtrunk windowsÕ) from the main stem at breast height (1.3 m) to look for A. planipennis life stages and galleries (de Groot et al. 2006, Lyons et al. 2007, Metzger et al. 2007, Storer et al. 2007) but these trunk windows are esthetically damaging and their efÞcacy at detecting A. planipennis is unknown. Girdled ash trees are attractive to A. planipennis and can be used as trap trees (Marshall et al. 2009, 2010a,b; McCullough et al. 2009;) but this method is costly, time-consuming, and requires the felling of entire trees and peeling of large areas of bark (Marshall et al. 2010b). ...
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The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ≥6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ≈75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ≈3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics.
... Although A. planipennis may use short range or contact pheromones in mate location (Lelito et al. 2009, Pureswaran and Poland 2009, Silk et al. 2009), there is no evidence that these beetles use long-range sex or aggregation pheromones (Lelito et al. 2007, Rodriguez-Saona et al. 2007). Many operational detection programs, therefore, have relied on ground surveys to identify trees with external symptoms of A. planipennis attack (de Groot et al. 2006, Lyons et al. 2007). Because external symptoms are rarely present when A. planipennis densities are low, visual surveys are unlikely to detect recent infestations. ...
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Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10.
... Agrilus planipennis is difficult to detect at low population levels. Current operational methods rely on visual inspection of tree symptoms and insect signs (de Groot et al. 2006; Lyons et al. 2007) or monitoring of trap trees stressed by girdling the inner bark (phloem) and outer sapwood (xylem) followed by stripping the bark from the tree trunk at the end of the growing season and searching for galleries of A. planipennis larvae (Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition, in the trap-tree program undertaken by the Michigan Department of Agriculture in 2004, sticky-band traps on girdled ash trees were used to catch adult A. planipennis (Poland and McCullough 2006). ...
... Three woodlots in Essex County infested with A. planipennis were selected in 2003 for use in the trapping studies (Table 1): plot 1 had a high beetle density / well-established infestation; plot 2 had a moderate beetle density / old and declining infestation; and plot 3 had a low beetle density / new and increasing infestation, based on subjective estimates, made by staff of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, of signs and symptoms of A. planipennis attack (see Lyons et al. 2007). Fifty green ash trees were selected for banding in plots 1 and 3, and 30 in plot 2. In 2004, 11, 12, and 1 green ash trees were selected in plots 1, 2, and 3, respectively, to replace trees that had died the previous year. ...
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En 2003 – 2006, nous avons mené des expériences de capture à l'aide de pièges à bandes collantes afin d'étudier le comportement de recherche de l'hôte chez l'agrile du frêne, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, dans des terres boisées du sud-ouest de l'Ontario, Canada. La proportion de femelles d'A. planipennis qui émergent des billes de l'hôte varie de 0,414 à 0,582. La proportion de femelles qui se posent sur les pièges à bandes collantes est plus variable et va de 0,392 à 0,889; dans la majorité des cas, elle se situe dans la région supérieure de cette gamme de valeurs, ce qui laisse croire à des différences de comportement entre les sexes. Les corrélations entre la densité d'insectes qui se posent et la taille des arbres, déterminée par le diamètre à hauteur de poitrine, sont ou bien positives ou nulles. Dans certains sites, plus de coléoptères ont été récoltés du côté sud des arbres que du côté nord; ailleurs, il n'y a pas de différence en fonction des points cardinaux. Les nombres de coléoptères capturés ne sont jamais significativement supérieurs du côté nord des troncs. Les densités des adultes des deux sexes qui se posent sur les pièges dans les arbres en orée sont plus grandes que sur les arbres à l'intérieur des terres boisées. Lorsqu'ils ont le choix en conditions naturelles, les coléoptères se posent presque exclusivement sur les arbres hôtes (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (Oleaceae), plutôt que sur les autres espèces communes d'arbres (Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), Tilia americana L. (Tiliaceae) et d'érables Acer L. (Aceraceae) trouvées dans les mêmes terres boisées. Nos données laissent croire que les A. planipennis font la sélection de leur hôte pendant le vol plutôt que de se poser au hasard. Nous discutons des implications de nos résultats sur la surveillance d'A. planipennis à l'aide de pièges à bandes collantes et sur la compréhension de son comportement de recherche d'hôte. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
... Its cryptic feeding habit, together with its ability to survive movement over long distances, has made this insect extremely difficult to detect, control, and manage. Current operational methods of detection rely on visual signs and symptoms of attack , extensive ground surveys (Lyons et al. 2007), and girdling and peeling of ash trap trees . These methods are time consuming, costly, and, most notably, they usually do not detect emerald ash borer until populations have been established for at least 1 year-and often longer. ...
... Adult beetles feed on ash leaves for a week or more before mating (Lyons et al. 2007). Studies by Otis et al. (2005) and Lelito et al. (2007) revealed that males use visual cues to locate females, and that they actively search for females on ash leaflets in the tree canopy. ...
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Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar headspace volatiles collected in traps containing Super-Q from white ash, Fraxinus americana, and green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees. GLVs in the aeration extracts elicited antennal responses from both male and female adults in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection bioassays. Male antennae were more responsive than female antennae and showed the strongest response to (Z)-3-hexenol. Six field experiments were conducted in Canada and the USA from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate the attractiveness of candidate GLVs, in various lure combinations and dosages. Field experiments demonstrated that lures containing (Z)-3-hexenol were the most effective in increasing trap catch when placed on purple traps in open areas or along the edges of woodlots containing ash. Lures with (Z)-3-hexenol were more attractive to males than females, and dosage may be a factor determining its effectiveness.
Article
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), by request of the European Commission, develops pest survey cards for pests of relevance for the European Union (EU) member states, summarizing key biological, epidemiological and diagnostic information relevant for the detection and identification of these pests by inspectors and laboratory technicians in the EU member states. For three pilot pests, including emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), detailed guidelines are being prepared for the survey planners in the EU member states. Interaction with experts on the relevant organisms and the member states is needed before and after implementation of the surveys to ensure they are fit for purpose and can be harmonized across the EU. An important feature of the survey cards is the identification of risk factors, to focus the surveys on the most likely areas to find the pest if it is present and thus being able to apply a risk-based surveillance. Since 2014, ash wood and bark (from countries where A. planipennis is known to occur) are subjected to specific requirements laid down in Council Directive 2000/29/EC, the beetle is unlikely to enter the EU via this pathway. However, it cannot fully be excluded that introductions have happened before these requirements came into force, without being detected until now. In addition, the beetle could already be present in new third countries without being noticed yet and thus not regulated. Furthermore, firewood from countries adjacent to Russia (Belarus, Ukraine) is not restricted. The beetle could also hitch-hike to the EU by various means of transport, in particular via highways and railroads. Given the above, surveys should focus on these areas.
Article
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused devastating levels of mortality to ash trees ( Fraxinus Linnaeus, Oleaceae) in North America. Early infestations of this insect are extremely difficult to detect due to cryptic larval feeding and lack of obvious signs or symptoms of initial attack. Considerable research has been conducted to develop tools and techniques aimed towards providing early detection and delimitation of populations of this invasive species. Sampling tools and techniques include: (1) relating visual signs and symptoms to the presence of EAB infestations; (2) use of girdled trap-trees to increase captures of adults and subsequent larval densities; (3) sub-sampling protocols to detect larvae under the bark based on their within-tree distribution; (4) artificial traps baited with pheromones and/or host volatiles attractive to adult EAB; (5) biosurvellience using buprestid-hunting wasps; and (6) remote sensing techniques. Additional research modelling patterns of infestation at the landscape scale indicate very clumped or aggregated distributions, greatly increasing the difficulty of early detection across large spatial scales. Further research is still required to increase the efficacy and efficiency of early detection tools and techniques, including cost/benefit analysis of the various sampling options, increased understanding of patterns of initial infestation across the landscape, development of sampling programs for both detection and delimitation, and development of sequential sampling programs to estimate EAB density. This information will enable foresters to make informed decisions regarding management strategies against this devastating pest.