Environmental reconstruction for the Arabian Standstill. AMH groups on the Arabian Peninsula experienced severe cold conditions with the onset of Marine Isotope Stage 4 (~79ka), potentially further exacerbated by the Toba Eruption (~74ka). (A) NGRIP δ 18 O record reported on the GICC05 timescale Before Present (CE 1950) 49 ; Greenland Stadial 13 (GS-13) and Heinrich 5 (H5), and Mt. Toba eruption 36 are shown. (B) Mean annual sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Gulf of Aden marine core MD90-963 35 . Late Holocene (last 2.5ka) temperature range shown for comparison. (C) Hydroclimate changes in northeast Africa reconstructed from stable hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes corrected for ice volume contributions from MD90-963 35 . Horizontal bars define age ranges for key AMH events across the Arabian Peninsula and Eurasia, including potential for earlier Neandertal gene flow (dashed line) during Arabian Standstill 26,44 .