... In contrast to what has been seen as a focus on "internalized or shared lexico-grammatical system" by the structuralists (Woodbury 2003, 39), documentary linguists have been urged to situate their data in an ethnography that recognizes the "contextual landscape" of a language (Hill 2006, 114) as a part of a "discourse centered-approach on language and culture, placing increasingly more theoretical emphasis not on any one particular final use of discourse, but an openness to the range of possible uses" (Woodbury 2003, 41). In reality, however, the emerging body of work in documentation is producing a range of analyses, including those dedicated to the phonological and morpho-grammatical system(s) of language (Drude 2008;Helmbrecht and Lehmann 2008;Peterson 2011), those that promote the construction of grammars and dictionaries (Nakayama and Rice 2014;Nordhoff 2012;Rehg 2014), as well as those that bring cultural context to the forefront by delving into the pragmatic and sociolinguistic functions of specific features of language (Burt 2010;Childs et al. 2014;Hoenigman 2012). ...
This study employs tape-recorded data from interviews with elder speakers of Hawaiian conducted in the year 1970 to describe how a specific feature of the Hawaiian language, the first-person inclusive plural pronoun kākou, may be used in discourse as a resource for making claims of ownership on behalf of Hawaiians. To do so, the analysis first invokes Hanks's (2005) notions of deixis and deictic field to show how kākou can create a sense of community among speakers of Hawaiian. Insights from membership category analysis (Sacks 1992; Sacks and Schegloff 1979; Schegloff 2007) are then drawn on to demonstrate how kākou can be interpreted in interaction as a reference to the category of “Native Hawaiian” and how that category can be used to construe specific natural resources, activities, and forms of language as part of a Hawaiian identity. Discussion of the analysis centers on the status of Hawaiian as an endangered language in the midst of a revitalization movement where language and culture have been points of contestation. Usage of kākou to claim ownership is seen as a resource that can allow speakers of Hawaiian to work through the language itself to negotiate what it means to be “Native Hawaiian.”.
Multiple exponence is a phenomenon in which morphemes that encode a given piece of information are realized multiple times within a single word. Unlike other members of the Siouan language family spoken across North America, Crow possesses a set of modal auxiliaries that display multiple exponence of subject person agreement. I show that one source of multiple exponence in Crow is the grammaticalization of the inflectional future from the motion verb arrive there , which brings with it its own agreement prefixes. Multiple exponence then extended to compound modals containing the inflectional future and finally to a morphologically unrelated modal – a distinct case of multiple exponence begetting additional multiple exponence. Thus, this study contributes to the broader understanding of the diachronic pathways to multiple exponence.
Linguists have been attempting to define the range of locations in which infixes can occur since Ultan's pioneering work in 1975, but to date there has been no unambiguous evidence for infixation after the first syllable, despite previous (now controversial) claims of its existence by Ultan (1975) and Moravcsik (2000), as well as its predicted existence by Yu's Salient Pivot Hypothesis (‘phonological pivots must be salient at the psycholinguistic or phonetic level’) (2003, 2007). Previously examined potential examples are controversial due to restricted patterns and the acceptability of alternative analyses such as a first-vowel pivot or a foot-based pivot (Samuels 2010). In this article, I present strong evidence from fieldwork on Yeri, an endangered Torricelli language of Papua New Guinea, that imperfective and additive morphemes productively occur as infixes after the first syllable of the verb stem, and that a first-vowel or foot-based analysis cannot account for their position.
There is no single right way of doing fieldwork, but there are some wrong ways. For example, it would be wrong for a fieldworker to begin a data gathering session with no knowledge of the possible grammatical structures that s/he is about to encounter.
Although multiple exponence has long been recognized by some, morpheme-based theories predict that it will not exist. To deal with the existence of double exponence in some languages, a variety of ways have been sought around the restrictions imposed by these theories. In Batsbi, a language of the Nakh-Dagestanian family, in principle as many as six markers may occur in a single verb (five gender-number markers and one person-number marker), each agreeing in many instances with the same argument; in fact, examples presented here have up to four agreement markers. The implications of this for linguistic theory are explored. An analysis is proposed in terms of word-based morphology.