Figure 3 - uploaded by Pascal Knierim
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Entities for experimental assembly for all three conditions. (Left) real: Power supply, metal probe, thermal camera, wires, smartphone and stopwatch. (Center) replica: wooden power supply replica, wooden probe replica, wires, smartphone and stopwatch. (Right) virtual: smartphone and stopwatch.

Entities for experimental assembly for all three conditions. (Left) real: Power supply, metal probe, thermal camera, wires, smartphone and stopwatch. (Center) replica: wooden power supply replica, wooden probe replica, wires, smartphone and stopwatch. (Right) virtual: smartphone and stopwatch.

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... the real setup condition, participants were asked to execute the full experimental set up, which includes probe set up, camera calibration, wiring and operating the power supply. All necessary hardware components are depicted in Figure 3. The setup including the AR overlay is depicted in Figure 4. ...
Context 2
... assigned each participant to one of the conditions and showed them to the appropriate table next to the setup area that contained all the components. The diï¿¿erent components for each condition are shown in Figure 3. We explained how to start and use the AR application and handed the participants the assembly instruction and task description. ...

Citations

... Additionally, the Pelvis AR game, with its purely virtual AR design, draws upon insights from Knierim et al. [26], who found that tangibility in AR trainings had no significant impact on learning outcomes and knowledge transfer, while significantly increasing setup-times. Therefore, while we still define it as AR, we utilize this very "VR-like" approach of purely virtual learning content in AR and still utilize Smartphones as the hardware choice without requiring additional physical material. ...
... Current research in educational technology and human-computer interaction (HCI) suggests that learning in MR environments can improve the motivation and learning outcomes of students in certain contexts [18,20]. Examples of such mixed reality integrated Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mixed Reality (MR) has demonstrated its potential in the application field of education. In particular, in contrast to traditional learning, students using MR get the possibility of learning and exploring the content in a self-directed way. Meanwhile, research in learning technology has revealed the significance of supporting learning activities with feedback. Since such feedback is often missing in MR-based learning environments, we propose a solution of using eye-tracking in MR to provide gaze-aware attention feedback to students and evaluate it with potential users in a preliminary user study.
... 2 Considering these issues, technological complements and visualization supported through simulation or digital representation are necessary. 3,4 In this sense, descriptive resources ranging from electron microscopy images to drawings, scale models, or even analog videos 5,6 have been deployed with different success. Nevertheless, these resources still require considerable capacity for visual and spatial thinking. ...
... 9 In this sense, students showed a marked preference for more tactile AR models, providing the user a greater control over molecular manipulations. 4,9 The majority of experiences with AR have been focused on early education because of the simplicity for its implementation. For instance, AR was employed to study redox reactions using Vuforia SDK and Unity3d 55 or in molecular geometry. ...
... 69 This line includes the result of the activity in virtual laboratories (VL), and these results were similar to those obtained in real laboratories with traditional resources. 4 Other research showed improvements in learning outcomes 70 and understanding in practical chemistry classes. 71 In spite of these discrepancies, all these features together justify the growing use of AR in education and research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) is a mixed technology that superimposes three-dimensional (3D) digital data onto an image of reality. This technology enables users to represent and manipulate 3D chemical structures. In spite of its potential, the use of these tools in chemistry is still scarce. The aim of this work is to identify the real situation of AR developments and its potential for 3D visualization of molecules. A descriptive analysis of a selection of 143 research publications (extracted from Web of Science between 2018 and 2020) highlights some significant AR examples that had been implemented in chemistry, in both education and research environments. Although the traditional 2D screen visualization is still preferred when teaching chemistry, the application of AR in early education has shown potential to facilitate the understanding and visualization of chemical structures. The increasing connectivity of the AR technology to web platforms and scientific networks should translate into new opportunities for teaching and learning strategies.
... Moreover, the design is supported by recent evidence suggesting that knowledge transfer and increased retention are not necessarily increased when tangible interactions are compared with purely virtual environments. 27 ...
Article
Traditionally, laboratory practice aims to establish schemas learned by students in theoretical courses through concrete experiences. However, access to laboratories might not always be available to students. Therefore, it is advantageous to diversify the tools that students could use to train practical skills. This technology report describes the design, development, and first testing of a mobile augmented reality application that enables a hands-on learning experience of a titration experiment. Additionally, it presents the extension of the TrainAR framework for chemical education through the implementation of specific domain features, i.e., logbook, graph, and practical oriented hints. To test the application, 15 participants were recruited from five different high schools and two universities in Belgium. The findings reflect that the MAR Lab app was well-received by the users. In addition, they valued the design elements (e.g., logbook and multiple-choice questions), and the system has “good” usability (SUS score 72.8, SD = 14.0). Nevertheless, the usability and learners’ experience can be improved by tackling technical problems, providing more explicit instructions for subtasks, and modifying certain features. Therefore, future development will concentrate on improving upon these shortcomings, adding additional levels to target a larger audience, and evaluating the improvements’ effects with more participants.
... Exploration of virtual content is a powerful means to gain insights into complex problems and concepts of causal relation. Thus, AR and VR would be ideal for distance learning if the equipment were available to all students at home as well as in class (Reiners et al. 2014;Turner and Turner 2006;Knierim et al. 2020;Edler et al. 2019Edler et al. , 2020Babich 2019). Furthermore, accessibility is crucial when it comes to providing all students equally with the benefits of new technology. ...
Article
Full-text available
Elevation and visual data from Chang’E-2, Mars Viking, and MOLA were transformed into 3D models and environments using unity and unreal engine to be implemented in augmented (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applications, respectively. The workflows for the two game development engines and the two purposes overlap, but have significant differences stemming from their intended usage: both are used in educational settings, but while the AR app has to run on basic smartphones that students from all socio-economic backgrounds might have, the VR requires high-end PCs and can therefore make use of respective devices’ potential. Hence, the models for the AR app are reduced to the necessary components and sizes of the highest mountains on Luna and Mars, whereas the VR app contains several models of probe landing sites on Mars, a landscape containing the entire planet at multiple levels of detail and a complex environment. Both applications are enhanced for educational use with annotations and interactive elements. This study focuses on the transfer of scientific data into game development engines for the use in educational settings using the example of scales in extra-terrestrial environments.
... Knierim et collab. (Knierim et al., 2020) utilisent un système de visualisation de données situées avec un smartphone pour aider l'apprentissage de la conduction de chaleur dans des métaux (cf. Figure 2.4 B). Enfin, le projet Meta-AR (Villanueva et al., 2020) comprend un système de visualisation de données situées pour aider la discussion entre un instructeur et un étudiant (cf. Figure 2.4 C). ...
... Figure 2.4 -Différents systèmes de visualisation de données situées avec un dispositif porté à la main pour l'apprentissage de (A) circuit électrique (Beheshti et al., 2017) , (B) la conduction thermique (Knierim et al., 2020) Dans un contexte privé (c'est-à-dire à l'intérieur d'une maison ou de son lieu de travail), Caggianese et collab. (Caggianese et al., 2019) explorent l'information-seeking mantra (les principes de bases pour la conception de système de visualisation de données interactives (Shneiderman, 1996)) avec des données situées dans une pièce. ...
Thesis
Durant cette dernière décennie, la quantité de données numériques n'a cessé d'augmenter. Ces données provenant de l'Internet des Objets ou de smartphones permettent aux utilisateurs de comprendre et d'analyser leur santé, leur mode de vie ou encore leur consommation énergétique, et aux différentes institutions (villes, campus, promoteurs immobiliers) de gérer le flux de population, le trafic routier ou les pertes énergétiques dans les bâtiments administrés. Le domaine de la "ville intelligente" en tire particulièrement profit. Il est donc capital de mettre à disposition des visualisations interactives de ces données pour pouvoir faire émerger des connaissances et faciliter la prise de décision. Une approche récente propose de représenter ces données proches de l'objet qui les capte ou les produit. Cependant, ce domaine est encore assez récent et il reste de nombreux défis à explorer. Un des défis majeurs identifié par Thomas et collab. (Thomas et al., 2018) est le développement et la conception de techniques d'interaction pour faciliter l'analyse de données situées. L'objectif de nos travaux de thèse est de concevoir et d'évaluer des solutions interactives tirant profit du référent physique pour interagir avec des données numériques situées en se focalisant sur une tâche interactive fondamentale en IHM : la sélection. Dans ce manuscrit nous abordons cette tâche selon une approche fonctionnelle et une approche conceptuelle.
... However, they are not only harder to implement for handheld AR devices but also require additional materials such as markers or tangible objects for the concepts to work, making them hard to scale compared to traditional interaction approaches like on-screen touch or hand-gesturebased approaches. Additionally, recent studies indicate that in terms of learning outcome, tangible interactions are not significantly increasing retention or transfer of knowledge compared to purely virtual interaction approaches [35]. ...
... While traditional AR augments physical objects or structures with virtual computergenerated content, this interaction concept targets purely virtual procedural training through handheld AR devices. While it is true that for example in assistance scenarios a direct in-situ contextualization of instructions is beneficial [42], studies have shown that for training scenarios, tangibility has no significant effect on learning outcomes [35] but introduce limitations for the scalability and prohibit the possibility for training-athome usage. ...
Article
Full-text available
The potential of Augmented Reality (AR) for educational and training purposes is well known. While large-scale deployments of head-mounted AR headsets remain challenging due to technical limitations and cost factors, advances in mobile devices and tracking solutions introduce handheld AR devices as a powerful, broadly available alternative, yet with some restrictions. One of the current limitations of AR training applications on handheld AR devices is that most offer rather static experiences, only providing descriptive knowledge with little interactivity. Holistic concepts for the coverage of procedural knowledge are largely missing. The contribution of this paper is twofold. We propose a scalabe interaction concept for handheld AR devices with an accompanied didactic framework for procedural training tasks called TrainAR. Then, we implement TrainAR for a training scenario in academics for the context of midwifery and explain the educational theories behind our framework and how to apply it for procedural training tasks. We evaluate and subsequently improve the concept based on three formative usability studies (n = 24), where explicitness, redundant feedback mechanisms and onboarding were identified as major success factors. Finally, we conclude by discussing derived implications for improvements and ongoing and future work.