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Ensuring sustainability in concessions and partnerships 62 

Ensuring sustainability in concessions and partnerships 62 

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Technical Report
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The guidelines on tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas developed were in response to an under-utilized potential of protected areas to utilise tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas and to recent decisions of the CBD on tourism, which invite Parties to “. . . build the capacity o...

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RESUMEN El elefante marino del sur (Mirounga leonina Linnaeus 1758) es una especie poco común en las costas chilenas fuera del territorio antártico chileno. En Tierra del Fuego se han descrito colonias estables y reproductivas de esta especie, que se ha identificado como el primer mamífero marino en ser utilizado turísticamente en la región de Maga...

Citations

... Thus, in the field of PPP research for protected areas, the terms "delegated management" and "joint management" are very often used (Baghai et al. 2018;Brugière 2020;Epler Wood 2010;Hatchwell 2014;Pfueller et al. 2011;Spenceley et al. 2017). They are supposed to determine the division of power and managerial responsibilities between the two partners, with the "delegated control" model transferring most of the powers to the private partner. ...
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This article examines the application of one of the forms of modern public management—public-private partnership (PPP)—in the forestry sector. This contributes to the search for new forms and methods that uphold the principles of sustainable development, decentralization, liberalization and capitalization of natural resources. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic features and advantages of PPP as a special partnership between the state and business-entrepreneurial structures, as well as to analyze the prospects and justify the feasibility of using PPP tools to ensure effective forestry. The research methodology was based on the critical analysis of the scholarly literature. Strategic documents, political reports and programs relevant to the forestry sector were also examined. In summary, it can be said that PPP models are a significant addition to other types of cooperation, such as more formal, top-down initiatives. PPP forestry projects can enable the accomplishment of otherwise impossible tasks.
... This crisis has highlighted the importance of nature-based tourism to human health, community wellbeing, and ecosystem health (Spenceley, 2021). The pandemic awakened us to a realization that "long-term resilience for protected areas also means strengthening the local economy, securing the financial viability of enterprises, and considering the need for long-term investment" , It underscores the need to build more political capital and public will for wildlife and biodiversity conservation (Lindsey et al., 2021), to outsource tourism enterprises through concessions where appropriate (World Bank, 2021;Spenceley et al., 2017). It demonstrates that the need for diversifying revenues in tourismdependent communities. ...
Conference Paper
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Foreword The MMV is much more than a conference. It is a meaningful global research platform on visitor management and monitoring outdoors. We are proud to host to this international event held in Latvia more than 100 participants in person and almost 10 participants virtually from 27 countries. It is truly gratifying that so many of us researchers care about mission-related research to keep the fragile natural heritage vital and available for generations to come. We live in a changing world in which we have to adapt to many new conditions. The demand for the consumption of nature drastically increased worldwide in the last three years of Covid-19 pandemic. Even since the war in Ukraine, there have been changes in public behaviour, the scale of values and priorities. Although outdoor recreation activities in Ukraine are far from priorities, a new National Park was created there this year – Pushcha Radzivila National Park in Polesia. Changes in the global economy have an impact on the natural environment and sustainable planning of resources. For example, the energy crisis to keep countries safe for energy supplies is driving demand for additional new solar and wind parks. Are the society, locals and tourists ready to accept these parks in scenic natural landscapes? How to manage the economic development principle "not in my backyard," and balance recreational activities, nature conservation, and wildlife? These are just few actual and challenging issues for managers and researchers – as part of the spark of problems and the time stamp of this moment. The keynote speakers will encourage us to reconsider values, attitudes, and training on sustainability understanding and acceptance in daily activities. In a public poll (2021) on nature conservation and protection in Latvia, 96 % respondents confirmed that it is significant to take care of nature. Still, less than 32 % of them accepted that their daily activities and decisions significantly influence nature. This volume of research findings includes papers – extended abstracts from different disciplines on managing and monitoring protected and recreational areas, such as landscape studies, geography, geomatics, information technologies, biology, nature conservation, culture, history, economy, management, transport, building engineering and citizen science etc. Beyond the active debates in Jūrmala conference venue there are three field trips included into the programme allowing to exchange the know-how on practices how to manage visitors in protected recreational areas and in nationally valuable landscapes such as the coast of the Baltic Sea, Gauja National park and Ķemeri National park. We truly wish that the conference will enrich your research experience and open up opportunities for new collaborative networks to address issues that matter to society and nature. Local Organizing Committee Agita Līviņa, chair Andris Klepers co-chair
... This crisis has highlighted the importance of nature-based tourism to human health, community wellbeing, and ecosystem health (Spenceley, 2021). The pandemic awakened us to a realization that "long-term resilience for protected areas also means strengthening the local economy, securing the financial viability of enterprises, and considering the need for long-term investment" , It underscores the need to build more political capital and public will for wildlife and biodiversity conservation (Lindsey et al., 2021), to outsource tourism enterprises through concessions where appropriate (World Bank, 2021;Spenceley et al., 2017). It demonstrates that the need for diversifying revenues in tourismdependent communities. ...
Book
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International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas (MMV) 11th: Behavioral changes of outdoor and landscape recreational consumption in Global Green Deal context. Abstracts.
... Through this agreement, Singita introduced a luxury wildlife tourism business in Kruger National Park. The concession generated revenues for the national park, provided a high-quality visitor experience and supported park management (Spenceley, Snyman and Eagles, 2017). Another example is the Department of Conservation (DOC) in New Zealand. ...
... A partnership may help the park agency team in managing tourism. This will facilitate tourism management and enable park rangers to focus on their (Spenceley et al., 2017). A good partnership model is expected to build and improve socioeconomic relationships among stakeholder groups. ...
Chapter
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... Concessions for tourism in Protected Areas (PAs) represent the mechanism by which the public authority grants a private entity the right to use land or offer speci c services. They occur by providing support services for visitation, accommodation, food, recreation, and education (among others) (Spenceley et al. 2017), and have been encouraged as a strategy to nance and improve tourism implementation in these areas (Gorini et al. 2006; Thompson et al. 2014). ...
... It is worth noting that PAs considerably spread on a global scale between 1992 and 2016, reaching approximately 200,000 (Salvio and Gomes 2018). In this scenario, tourist concessions act as an alternative to maintain these spaces in guaranteeing the provision of services while contributing to their maintenance (Spenceley et al. 2017). Governments have reduced their role in biodiversity conservation and are still facilitating participation of the private sector and civil society, creating market structures, incentives and other forms of support (Hodge and Adams 2012). ...
... Debates are still incipient regarding their contribution to conservation in ful lling the objectives of the PAs and for the surrounding communities (Rodrigues and Godoy 2013;Matheus and Raimundo 2017;Rodrigues and Abrucio 2019). However, it has aroused scienti c interest (Ojeda 2012;Vuohelainen et al. 2012;Coghlan and Castley 2013;Dinica 2016;Rylance 2016;Spenceley et al. 2017;Zhang and Liu 2018;Rodrigues and Abrucio 2019), seeking to understand the vulnerabilities of processes and public policies related to tourism concessions. ...
Preprint
This study aimed to investigate tourist concessions around the world and their main effects. To do so, we explored the descriptive information according to specific variables and the existing balance between positive and negative effects. We found that the concessions fulfill their economic role through the development of tourist activity, but they have deficiencies in social, environmental and procedural parameters. The most significant positive effect especially concerns the economy and tourism. On the other hand, the negative social effect showed a higher percentage and is related to the lack of partnership with the community. Most concession types are strictly linked to tourism by large companies. The local population is not fully included in the processes or considered partners, and they only participate in the provision of services. We also found an imbalance between positive and negative effects, with evidence of inconsistency in the processes. The processes considered inconsistent compromise local sustainability, the management objectives of the areas, and generate unequal opportunities. This scenario reveals that tourism concessions are still fragile and can compromise sustainable tourism development and nature conservation in PA. Furthermore, processes based on economic policies when implemented in conservation efforts only guarantee the maximization of economic benefits, disfavoring social and environmental objectives. We defend the control and continuous monitoring of concessions in order to maintain more consistent and effective processes.
... However, well managed PAs were easy to recognise during times when their roles were solely based on conservation, without the added role of community development through tourism, hence only conservation indicators were used to measure their performance. Bringing in tourism was one way to finance protected areas based on a win-win management fashion (Spenceley et al., 2017). This win-win strategy must be successful for sustainability to occur, as losing income generation opportunities from tourism can reduce funds for PA management and community benefit, and as a result, increase conservation threats (Lindsey, 2020). ...
... Los espacios naturales protegidos implican una mínima intervención humana para la conservación, sin embargo, por motivos turísticos se permiten distintos usos, con sus consecuentes impactos ecológicos, económicos y sociales, por lo que a medida que aumenta la tendencia del turismo y recreación en contacto con la naturaleza, se ejerce más presión en la conservación de las áreas naturales protegidas (Eagles et al., 2017) generando conflictos de intereses entre distintos grupos sociales por causas de conservación o recreación. ...
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La percepción social puede constituirse en un factor influyente en la creación, promoción y ejecución de las políticas públicas de aprovechamiento de los espacios naturales con uso turístico. El objetivo general del estudio fue evaluar los factores más influyentes en la percepción social de los residentes de la isla de Cozumel acerca del aprovechamiento turístico de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas. Se aplicó un enfoque cuantitativo, con la técnica de encuesta y una muestra aleatoria representativa por conglomerados, para evaluar la percepción de impactos hacia la naturaleza, el aprovechamiento sustentable y el turismo, con un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados revelan una percepción negativa sobre el aprovechamiento turístico de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas, pero se reconocen los beneficios económicos y una preocupación social por la conservación. El factor más influyente en la percepción de la población sobre los impactos positivos de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas fue “Beneficios del turismo”. Se concluye que los beneficios económicos son el factor predominante en la percepción social de la población de Cozumel. Se sugiere que las políticas públicas de aprovechamiento turístico deben incentivar programas educativos que expliquen la relación entre conservación y beneficios económicos.
... Thus, community-based tourism (see Spenceley, 2008) and pro-poor tourism models (Ashley & Roe, 2002) have evolved to provide frameworks for how to overcome various social and institutional barriers to these challenges. The recent growth of joint-venture models (Snyman, 2014;Spenceley, Snyman, & Eagles, 2017), emphasizing the importance of stakeholder collaboration (Jamal & Stronza, 2009) and extending community involvement into the broader tourism value chain, has helped improve financial viability and governance/competence inadequacies. Therefore, determining additional leverage points through which local community members can sustainably participate in nature-based tourism is well warranted (Ndivo & Cantoni, 2016) and, if marketed correctly, may produce greater contributions toward conservation (Buckley & Mossaz, 2018;Mossaz, Buckley, & Castley, 2015). ...
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Abstract Relatively few studies have examined how the degree of involvement of local communities in nature‐based tourism, and the benefits that are generated for them, impact the choices that tourists make when visiting developing countries. We surveyed over 400 visitors in multiple locations in Namibia, using a discrete choice experiment to elicit preferences for attributes reflecting tracking safaris of the critically endangered, desert‐adapted black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in the northwest of the country. Attributes included those related to local community involvement and the benefits they receive from tourism, as well as the reinvestment of tourism profits back into rhino conservation, and the wildlife likely to be seen on safari. Using a latent class model that assigned tourists to market segments based on the observed pattern of responses in the choice experiment, we find that respondents can be divided into four classes that reflect differences in tourism preferences and their own demographics and experiences. While responses to attributes varied across classes, respondents were consistent in demonstrating a strong preference for the largest share of profits being returned to the local community, and were willing to pay an additional $43–670 to ensure this happens. Respondents in the four classes differed in their views toward the financing of rhino conservation and the participation of community trackers in rhino safaris, although those respondents in the class most interested in rhino tracking safaris were willing to pay an additional $34 per trip for tracker involvement. Our results demonstrate the value of assessing heterogeneity in tourists' preferences for wildlife experiences, and suggest that appropriate pricing and marketing may result in “triple bottom line” gains for nature‐based tourism.
... For example, wildlife in some protected areas has been reported to benefit from reduced human activity [23] and attention to improving regulation and legislation on wildlife trade has increased [24,25]. On the other hand, since the tourism sector was the largest market-based contributor to the financing of protected areas [26], the lost revenues from tourism will likely reduce funds for PA management and, as a result, increase conservation threats [27]. ...
Article
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Tourism in protected areas was a fast-growing segment within the global travel and tourism industry prior to the economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. As a development pathway, tourism generated foreign exchange for countries endowed with natural assets (protected areas, pristine landscapes, forests, oceans, wildlife), contributed to conservation revenues, and provided local development benefits for communities. However, the spread of COVID-19 and its associated travel restrictions severely impacted this sector. In this review, we describe the main challenges preventing the sector from achieving its development potential. We propose a framework to steer tourism in protected areas as a green recovery initiative, so that it may rebound sustainably and continue to support biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development.
... Почти в каждой стране есть свое определение того, что является концессией. Обычно под концессией понимается «право использовать землю или другое имущество для определенной цели, предоставленное правительством, компанией или другим контролирующим органом, включая коммерческую деятельность и/или участок земли» [7]. Согласно российскому законодательству, спецификой концессии является то, что собственность на имущество, передаваемое концессионеру на определенный срок и на определенных условиях, принадлежит концеденту, а после окончания срока действия концессионного соглашения оно ему возвращается [4]. ...
... В работе [7] подробно описывается концессионная система, состоящая из ряда взаимосвязанных компонентов: от законодательства и политики до управления персоналом; процессов планирования; подготовки и присуждения контрактов; ИТ-систем и мониторинга. Здесь же подчеркивается, что концессионная система должна специально разрабатываться, пересматриваться и совершенствоваться со временем с учетом различий концессионных процессов в зависимости от особенностей стран и конкретного законодательства. ...
... Рис. 1. Последовательность и содержание работ по подготовке и предоставлению туристских концессий в национальных парках Источник: адаптировано авторами на основе [7]. ...