Figure 5 - uploaded by Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
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Endeavor Crater (M145852935EFF3505P2906M2M1). Blue arrow points to hole; and note fossilized/mineralized tubular specimens on either side of arrow. Red arrows point to tubular specimens. Numerous spiral shaped "worm-like" specimens can be viewed circled in red at the entrance to the hole. Note "twisted" specimen at bottom center with appendages. White arrow points to elongated structure that may be a fossilized/mineralized worm that had occupied the "worm tube" directly beneath it.

Endeavor Crater (M145852935EFF3505P2906M2M1). Blue arrow points to hole; and note fossilized/mineralized tubular specimens on either side of arrow. Red arrows point to tubular specimens. Numerous spiral shaped "worm-like" specimens can be viewed circled in red at the entrance to the hole. Note "twisted" specimen at bottom center with appendages. White arrow points to elongated structure that may be a fossilized/mineralized worm that had occupied the "worm tube" directly beneath it.

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Hundreds of tubular and spiral specimens resembling terrestrial tube worms and worm tubes were photographed in the soil and atop and protruding from “rocks” on Sols 177, 199 and 299 in the vicinity of Endurance Crater, Meridiani Planum. Dozens of these putative “worms” and tubes are up to 3 mm in size. These tubular specimens display twisting, bend...

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... worms can also exit the tube and migrate across the surface or through ocean or lake water in search of nutrients or a new habitat. Figure 5 depicts a mineralized/fossilized "worm-like" specimen immediately anterior to a "worm tube." ...

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... Specimens resembling algae [26][27][28][93][94][95][96], domical concentric stromatolites, lichens, fungi, [27][28][29]30,97], and tube worms [31][32][33][34]98] have been photographed by the NASAs Mars rovers. Of course, similarities in morphology are not proof of life. ...
... Spectral and geological-morphological observations of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Plains that include vent-like and conical-chimney-like structures [140] , supports the impact and magma scenarios. Likewise, evidence of "vents" and minerals associated with hydrothermal and tube worm-symbiotic activity discovered within Endurance Crater and surrounding outcrops [98,138] is consistent with both scenarios for the formation of hydrothermal vents. ...
... The lakes of Endurance Crater have also been described as a salty "brine" [106][107][108][109]. Brines and hydrothermal vents are a favored habitat of "tube worms" and their symbionts [152][153][154][155]. Vents/holes surrounded by tubular specimens have been observed within Endurance Crater, the latter of which have been tentatively identified as fossilized/mineralized tube worms and their tubes [98,138]. ...
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In the ancient and recent past, various niches on Mars were habitable and possibly inhabited by organisms that have evolved and adapted to extreme surface and subsurface environments. Habitability is promoted by the high levels of iron that promotes melanization of various organisms that protects against radiation. Glacial and water-ice below the surface provides moisture to organisms at temperatures below freezing due to salts in these ices and heat generated from anomalous thermal sources. Impact craters formed over 3.7 bya appear to be highly magnetized thus providing additional protection against radiation; and if initially hosting a large body of water may have triggered the formation of hydrothermal vents. Tube worms, sulfur-reducing and other chemoautotrophs have thrived and likely still inhabit subsurface aquifers within Endurance Crater which was formed over 3.7 bya, has hosted large bodies of water, and also has the mineralogy of hydrothermal vents and surface holes surrounded by tubular specimens. Formations resembling fossil tube worms have also been observed in the ancient lake beds of Gale Crater which was formed over 3.7 bya. A comparative quantitative analysis of the Gale and Endurance Crater tubular specimens provides additional confirmation for the tube-worm hydrothermal vent hypothesis.
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We evaluate claims for extraterrestrial intelligence based on the logic behind assertions such as the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. To assess intelligence elsewhere in the universe we outline two of the principle scientific claims for intelligence on Earth. One involves the idea that intelligence involves working out the reasons for our own existence. The other involves self-awareness and the capacity to make inferences about what others know, want, or intend to do. The famous quote from Rene Descartes "I think; therefore, I am" needs to be revised to read "I am; therefore, I think." Some of the conclusions we derive about intelligence include the idea that most species on planet Earth have clever brains but blank minds (no self-consciousness); humans are the only species where what you know could get you killed; if humans become extinct it is highly unlikely that human-like intelligence will re-emerge on this planet and the odds of human-like intelligence evolving on other worlds is infinitely small. However, if intelligence exists elsewhere in the universe it may not have revealed itself because humans are dangerous and are perceived as posing too great a risk.