Table 5 - uploaded by Salma Ahmed
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Employment of children aged 5-17 in urban and rural areas, by gender and industry __________________________________________________________________________________

Employment of children aged 5-17 in urban and rural areas, by gender and industry __________________________________________________________________________________

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... may imply that male children are increasingly entering the formal wage labour market rather than working as unpaid family workers, and thus allowing female children to substitute into the unpaid family related activities. Table 5 shows that industries that employ child labour are quite different for males and females in urban and rural areas. Although the agricultural sector is large, males are more likely to work in wholesale and retail industries in urban areas and females are more likely to work in the agricultural industries in rural areas. ...
Context 2
... do obtain significant results with the number of hours worked for school attendance outcomes (see Table A4). Conversely, a different pattern emerges with the tobit regressions for GAGE with the number of hours worked as we now obtain statistically insignificant effect of working hours on child"s grade attainment (Table A5). When we look at the results for parental characteristics we find that the effect of mother"s education (measured by highest grade) continues to be significant with and without control for father"s education in both school attendance and GAGE regressions, while the effect of father"s education though significant in GAGE equations, it turns out to be statistically insignificant in school attendance equations. ...

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... In poor communities, households or families with disabled or illiterate parents are more likely to opt for generating income by engaging their children in child labor (Edmonds, 2007;Webbink et al., 2012). Several studies show that parents' education has a positive impact on child schooling and negative impact on child labor in Bangladesh (Ravallion and Wodon, 2000;Khanam, 2005;Shafiq, 2007;Ahmed and Ray, 2011;Hossain and Akter, 2019). Ahmed and Ray (2011) reveal that parents' level of education affects the trade-off decision-making across genders; however, a mother's education shows a significant inclination toward educating a girl child. ...
... Several studies show that parents' education has a positive impact on child schooling and negative impact on child labor in Bangladesh (Ravallion and Wodon, 2000;Khanam, 2005;Shafiq, 2007;Ahmed and Ray, 2011;Hossain and Akter, 2019). Ahmed and Ray (2011) reveal that parents' level of education affects the trade-off decision-making across genders; however, a mother's education shows a significant inclination toward educating a girl child. Based on data collected from two districts of Bangladesh Hossain and Akter (2019) observe that children of educated parents left school less than less-educated parents. ...
... However, due to seasonal variation in agricultural activities, particularly in Bangladesh, the adults of the families may be engaged in non-agricultural work to increase income. This may create the substitution effect on the children in the household activities when the adults are busy working outside (Ahmed and Ray, 2011). ...
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