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Empirical plot of relationship between flapping rate (discretized) and noun frequency (Zipf scale) in Experiment 1 (speeded, online responses) and Experiment 2 (delayed responses). Line represents the estimated probability from a univariate logistic regression model, and shading shows 95% confidence intervals. Each gray point represents the mean for a unique critical bigram.

Empirical plot of relationship between flapping rate (discretized) and noun frequency (Zipf scale) in Experiment 1 (speeded, online responses) and Experiment 2 (delayed responses). Line represents the estimated probability from a univariate logistic regression model, and shading shows 95% confidence intervals. Each gray point represents the mean for a unique critical bigram.

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In two speech production experiments, we investigated the link between phonetic variation and the scope of advance planning at the word form encoding stage. We examined cases where a word has, in addition to the pronunciation of the word in isolation, a context-specific pronunciation variant that appears only when the following word includes specif...

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Context 1
... regression results are shown in Table 2. As illustrated in Figure 2, higher frequency nouns were significantly more likely to appear with a flap ( ˆ β = 0.16, p < 0.001), consistent with our prediction of a noun frequency effect. Flapping was also more likely with high frequency adjectives ( ˆ β = 0.26, p = 0.002). ...

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