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Conference Paper
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This paper discusses Five Management Pillars for Digital Transformation integrating the Lean Thinking Philosophy. It proposes a "Digital Lean Transformation Framework" where its five management pillars-(Digital) Strategic Management, Processes (Re-)Engineering Management, (Digital) Technology Management, Change (People) Management, and (Digital) Ri...

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... Digital Transformation refers to the increase of digitalized business processes in an enterprise or supply chain resulting in the adoption and integration of information, communication, and operational technologies to create new and enhanced digitally-enabled operations. Furthermore, the application of business process optimization and re-engineering techniques has been recognized as a prerequisite for successful business processes digitalization to offer a high degree of contextuality and specificity to the transforming enterprise or supply chain [7,8]. ...
... However, even successful cases of proposed Digital Transformation Frameworks, for instance [8], struggle to formalize the operational levels of digital transformation. It seems that there is no clear distinction between (i) the digital transformation paths followed to digitalize an existing business process, and (ii) the engineering of a 'born-digital' business process based on newly available digital technologies. ...
Conference Paper
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Supply chain maturity models urge increased collaboration among supply chain participants to achieve sustained competitive advantage through operational end-to-end visibility and transparency. Digital solutions provide the tools and technologies to enable Digital Supply Networks through inter-connectivity among supply network partners. A major challenge in improving digitalized operations is the divergence between 'official' business processes that are mapped out with accountabilities assigned and the 'de facto' business processes that are executed. During business processes optimization and IT system enhancements, this mismatch between documented versus tribal business processes results often in inefficient, ineffective, and if not addressed early, infeasible digital solutions. In this paper, the authors outline challenges and their root causes by discussing possible resolution directions in the dimensions of organizational change management (e.g., connected customer), IT systems gaps (e.g., composable applications), and common datasets for digital operations and business process mining applications (e.g., digital twins).
... There are five pillars for digital transformation integrating lean: digital strategic management, processes re-engineering management, digital technology management, change people management and digital risk management (Romero et al., 2019a). Digital strategy development is an important part of transformation, where personnel commitment starts bottom up and top managers involve their knowledge in the top-down phase of digitalization (Demeter et al., 2021). ...
... The combination of lean practice, JIT and TQM leads to operational performance improvement through the support of goal-oriented practices and increased capability in dealing with variations affecting the quality, delivery, flexibility or cost. Romero et al. (2019a) discuss TQM and quality circles in digital LM through the framework where quality standards vary based on their objectives and tasks, dependent on human and digital capabilities. Respect for people should remain a powerful lean attribute in the age of new technologies, with automation combined with human creativity, ingenuity and innovation in a strategic way for quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived effects between soft management practices, employee behaviours and the implementation of digital technologies in manufacturing plants, as well as how these relate to the emergence of digital waste. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses case-based research. Data was collected in two large manufacturing companies based in Norway and Sweden through semi-structured interviews with two management representatives and four shop-floor employees. The data was used to evaluate 29 variables describing lean- and total quality management (TQM)-associated employee behaviours and soft management practices, in light of digital transformation. Findings The results suggest that several variables were positively influenced by the digital transformation process. These were top management leadership, middle management involvement, employee education, corporate social responsibility focus, innovation, knowledge sharing, work-family balance, psychological capital, job satisfaction and career commitment. Training employees, creativity, discretionary effort, turnover intention and proactivity appear to be negatively influenced by digital transformation The findings also indicate that several soft management practices and employee behaviours were not only influenced by manufacturing digitalization but also themselves influenced the process. The potential for digital waste creation was also detected in several variables, including reward and recognition and training employees. Practical implications Managers, practitioners and academics may learn about the importance of certain managerial practices and employees’ behavioural needs during the digital transformation process. The findings may help in prioritizing TQM and soft lean management practices and certain employee behaviours during the digital transformation and in creating awareness of digital waste. Originality/value This study builds on several existing studies discussing the impact of digital transformation on soft management practices and employee behaviours. It provides insights from a lean and TQM angle and offers a means of prioritizing certain practices and behaviours during a digital transformation. This study also highlights the significance of digital waste.
... While Pihir et al. (2020) also lists a subset of our findings, he stresses the fact that technologies preferences change over time and follow a "technological life cycle" [12] In our research, however, we have not been able to identify what the speed of the adaptation to the life cycle of the evolution of technology should be and whether it varies according to the industry in which the organization operates. AI Artificial Intelligence [16], [28], [29], [34]- [40] Fast Communication & 5G [21], [37], [40]- [44] APIs [45], [46] IoT-Smart Connected Products [14], [28]- [30], [34], [36], [38]- [40], [42], [43], [47]- [50] Augmented Reality [27]- [29] Product Platforms [29], [51]- [53] Data, Big Data, Effective Data Management [14], [16], [22], [24], [28], [28]- [30], [34]- [42], [44], [46]- [48], [54]- [59] Robotics Automation [29], [37], [42] Blockchain [28], [51] Services Oriented Architecture SOA [24] Cloud Computing [14], [24], [28]- [30], [34], [38], [44], [47], [48], [50], [55] This is the pre-print version. It is noteworthy that many scholars mention that the use of technologies also requires an IT strategy in full compliance with business objectives and the use of appropriate software that exploits these technologies [24], [60]- [69]. ...
Chapter
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In recent years, organizations and researchers have become increasingly interested in digital transformation. Technology has found its way into the lives of customers, but at the same time is disrupting industries by enabling organizations, that have embraced it, to gain more and more competitive advantages. However, technology is only one factor of a successful digital transformation strategy, where culture, management, human resources etc. also play an important role. While digital transformation has been researched over the years from multiple points of view, limited studies have focused in detail on the impact of technology on digital transformation. Questions such as how fast an organization should adapt to the evolution of technology, which technologies should be preferred and finally, in which cases technology might delay the digital transformation process, remain unanswered. The present paper aims to fill this gap by conducting a systematic literature review of 74 related articles, based on the Webster & Watson methodology, followed by a concept analysis of technology related themes in digital transformation. The results of the analysis reveal that technology does not only act as an enabler or driver of digital transformation, but can also be a barrier of it. While we contribute with our paper to the research body in digital transformation, at the same time, we identify potential research gaps that leave space for further investigation.
... Whatever the focus, a digital strategy will simultaneously take into consideration the organizational culture and business model, employee preparedness, networks (e.g. partnerships, strategic alliances, supply chain agility and automation), customer engagement, operations (decision-making, process efficiency, and automation) [42], as well as portfolio innovation [43] and digital risks (obsolescence, unauthorized data use, inefficient business processes, lacking digital skills, etc.) [44]. These elements eventually define the digital performance level of an organization [1]. ...
... A digital strategy performs six main functions: (1) setting a long-run vision for the digital transformation path; (2) dividing the digital vision into different objectives; (3) assessing the current digital maturity level of the company (identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities for improvements, competitive environments and gaps in capabilities, resources, and technologies); (4) selecting and prioritizing technologies, capabilities, and methods for allowing employees to adjust to the new/re-engineered way of working; (5) defining how the new digital culture will be created; (6) monitoring progress and effectiveness of the strategy [43,44]. ...
Article
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Accountability assessment is a highly relevant challenge for companies nowadays. The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a digital acceleration in business environments, which in turn brought more focus on sustainability practices that could help organizations better demonstrate their accountability, thus making them more resilient to the ever-changing socio-economic context. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate how to further improve corporate accountability (on a strategic and operational level), taking advantage of the digitalization changes that companies are being forced to go through and applying them to the sustainability evaluation process, including the reporting as its final output. The first research outcome is a combined framework, based on data governance and sustainability literature models, seeking to optimize the manageability of sustainability data. The second outcome is a matrix, based on a content analysis of 20 sustainability reports, representing eight possible types of behavior that companies adopt when integrating digitalization practices into their sustainability evaluation process. The aim is to explore how the communication of digital activities could refine the diligence of the sustainability assessment process, with disclosure representing its last step. Finally, the ‘leading’ case was broken down into the general strategic components that could potentially be included in a balanced data-sustainability reporting strategy.
... A "Digital Lean Transformation Framework" was proposed by Romero et al. [52] with the aim of providing a practical approach, at the strategic level, to achieve a successful digital transformation aligned with the lean thinking philosophy. The framework was developed based on previous studies on the lean approach and digital transformation and a case study in a manufacturing company was conducted to validate the framework. ...
... Only three DTMs-i.e., Erol et al. [49], Romero et al. [52] and Butt [58]-explicitly mention the theoretical approach used to develop them, which are, respectively, co-innovation and strategic road mapping, the lean thinking philosophy and business process management. ...
Article
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The growing diffusion of digital technologies, especially in production systems, is leading to a new industrial paradigm, named Industry 4.0 (I4.0), which involves disruptive changes in the way companies organize production and create value. Organizations willing to seize the opportunities of I4.0 must thus innovate their processes and business models. The challenges that companies must face for the transition towards I4.0 paradigm are not trivial. Several digital transformation models and roadmaps have been lately proposed in the literature to support companies in such a transition. The literature on change management stresses that about 70% of change initiatives—independently of the aim—fail to achieve their goals due to the implementation of transformation programs that are affected by well-known mistakes or neglect some relevant aspects, such as lack of management support, lack of clearly defined and achievable objectives and poor communication. This paper investigates whether and to what extent the existing digital transformation models (DTMs) and roadmaps for I4.0 transition consider the lessons learnt in the field of change management. To this aim, a Systematic Literature Review to identify existing models and roadmaps is carried out. The results obtained by the review are discussed under the lens of the change-management literature. Based on that, the shortcomings and weaknesses of existing DTMs are pinpointed. Extant DTMs mainly focus on digital transformation initiatives carried out in manufacturing companies; they do not cover all the phases of the digital transformation process but rather focus on the definition of the I4.0 vision, strategy and roadmap. Little attention is devoted to the implementation and consolidation of digital change. Change management lessons are considered to a limited extent, based on which, some suggestions for better dealing with digital transformation initiatives are discussed. The paper contributes to advancing knowledge on models and approaches to support organizations in managing digital transformation. The identification of change management activities that a digital transformation initiative should involve as well as the suggestions on how to effectively deal with it can be used by managers to successfully lead the I4.0 transition journey in their organizations.
... In the 1970s, electronics and information technologies were introduced in the industrial processes, giving production automation the principal characteristic of the third revolution [7]. Moreover, there is a discussion if there is a fourth industrial revolution or an evolution of the third industrial revolution technology [58]. The fourth industrial revolution comes from the concept "Industry 4.0" introduced at the Hanover Fair in 2011 [16]. ...
Chapter
The teaching of human factors, including ergonomics and anthropometrics, depends on the professors lecturing courses related to a product or process design. Moreover, the use of technology has been restrictive due to the high costs associated with specialized motion-capture hardware. Some researchers have shown the usefulness of using a commercially available video game camera to evaluate postures and anthropometrics in convergence with software. Through this document, we present a framework for designing activities aimed at teaching design and engineering students about human factors with the help of these digital tools, including some practical examples carried out for both product and process design.
... Um SGI é pautado sobre elementos e capacidades organizacionais que convergem com pilares necessários a um processo de TD, tais como liderança, cultura e estrutura organizacional. No Sobre cultura, uma vez que a TD exige um pensamento inovador, aberto e disruptivo que apoie a dinamicidade da tomada de riscos e a exploração de ideias (BUVAT et al., 2017;ROMERO et al., 2019;HANELT et al., 2020), a cultura inovadora fomentada por um SGI poderia estender sua abordagem para promover a chamada cultura digital. Ernst (2003) destaca que esse trabalho deve ser eficaz e multidisciplinar, apoiado por sistemas de motivação relevantes e métricas de desempenho (c.f. ...
Conference Paper
Sistemas de Gestão da Inovação (SGI) têm sido debatidos há muitos anos, tendo em vista a importância central para as empresas de inovar regularmente. Mais recentemente, temos testemunhado o rápido crescimento do debate sobre a Transformação Digital (TD), que pode ser descrita como um processo de mudança organizacional, no qual as tecnologias digitais desempenham papel central. Sendo fortemente transversal em termos de conhecimento e impactos gerados, o debate da TD tem emergido de forma bastante distribuída entre várias vertentes trazendo riqueza de perspectivas, mas também complexidade. As potencialidades de uma visão mais integrada entre SGI e TD são significativas: por um lado, um SGI pode nortear iniciativas de TD por meio de estrutura e processos concebidos para lidar com projetos de alta incerteza; por outro, a TD traz uma série de conceitos e tendências, tecnológicos e organizacionais, que podem fomentar SGIs aprimorados, que melhor se amoldem às novas dinâmicas de negócio. Contudo, tal integração ainda se mostra bastante incipiente e os campos seguem majoritariamente trajetórias paralelas. Assim, por meio de revisão bibliográfica e análise conceitual, este estudo identifica pontos de intercessão entre SGI e a TD e investiga como elementos dessas abordagens podem se apoiar mutuamente.
... However, discussions on advanced technologies advised by industry 4.0 within lean frameworks are still limited. Some researchers started to conceive the importance of providing frameworks and approaches that align process-culture-technology requirements in the digital transformation journey pushed by Industry 4.0 (ex: Romero et al. 2019), yet further intensive studies are still needed under the umbrella of Lean Construction 4.0. ...
Conference Paper
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In 1994, Lean Construction was understood as the application of Toyota Production principles to Construction. Since then, Lean Construction researchers and advocates have made two fundamental contributions: i) Lean Construction has become a production management theory in its own right; ii) Lean Construction has involved not only production management, but also people, technology, sustainability, safety, education, among others. With the arrival of the "fourth industrial revolution" or Industry 4.0, there has been seminal research attempts to acknowledge the influence of Industry 4.0 on the architecture-engineering-construction (AEC) industry (e.g. Construction 4.0), where the focus has been primarily on technology. However, for Lean Construction to keep evolving and serving the AEC industry, it must embrace the changes propelled by Industry 4.0, but maintain the people-processes-technology triad at its core. We argue that a shift towards Lean Construction 4.0 is needed, paying attention to the synergies between production management theory and digital/smart technologies. The term "Lean Construction 4.0" does represent the vision where we envision the AEC industry to be in the future, rather than its current status. The goal of this paper is not to propose an implementation plan, but to identify research needs and to motivate a discussion on the role of Lean Construction in facing the challenges of adopting Industry 4.0 in the AEC industry.
... Therefore, organizations need a certain degree of DT to stay competitive in a context immerse in a volatile digital economy; for that, they have incorporated advancements of information and communication, and new operational technologies [8]. However, due to the continuous emergence of new digital technologies, DT is described as a perpetual process during which both the path and goals should be constantly evaluated and recalibrated [5]. ...
... However, due to the continuous emergence of new digital technologies, DT is described as a perpetual process during which both the path and goals should be constantly evaluated and recalibrated [5]. Hence, DT refers to continuous adoption and integration of information, communication and operational technologies to constantly update, build, and incorporate digital capabilities that support the strategic and operational transformation in favor of creating new competitive advantages in a digital economy environment [5,8]. ...
... Consequently, risk associated to DT may look as more than a technology issue, it represents also a business issue [8]. In this regard, the risk derived from digital economic environment is not exclusive of digital project portfolios, but also covers and impacts all the projects and portfolios of an organization. ...
Article
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Digital Transformation (DT) has its own challenges and demands on organizational strategy and processes. Consequently, DT also has implications on Project Portfolio Risk Assessment (PPRA). Thus, this study is focused on identifying these implications based on a structured search and content analysis of the literature in the field, which led to the identification of eight implications for risk assessment. Then, through qualitative analysis and according to the nature of each implication identified, a set of five challenges and three opportunities were established for PPRA considering DT context. This research shows that DT not only demands new considerations for PPRA but also offers opportunities to face them, leading to improve the PPRA impact on project portfolio management decision-making process. The present study contributes to the current PPRA research by outlining a view of how PPRA can be integrated into organizational DT. The challenges and opportunities identified could be used by practitioners and scholars to research, design, and implement PPRA in DT context.
... Grand Challenge 4 is to update, develop, and demonstrate new lean concepts, methods, and tools that can enable the necessary transformation [51] of traditional production systems towards Digital Lean Manufacturing (DLM) Systems [35,52]. Such a transformation should maintain the current people-centric view of traditional, lean, production systems. ...
... There is a link between the methods-driven approaches to lean production and the technology-driven approaches envisioned by Industry 4.0 [51]. There have been many unsuccessful attempts to build this link and implement such a transformation. ...
... Hence, production managers must understand that digital technologies (i) will not simply render current lean practices unnecessary, and (ii) cannot be successfully adopted without proper lean methods. Both are complementary and necessary for the development of DLM systems [35,51]. In this sense, DLM promises (i) to further facilitate the application of lean practices, and (ii) to enhance their scope and direction [35,52]. ...