Eligibility criteria

Eligibility criteria

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Article
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Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) can leave a lasting mark on the lives and minds of those affected. Aim To assess the consequences of FGM on women’s sexual function in women who have undergone FGM compared to women who have not undergone FGM. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted from 3 databases; inclusion and ex...

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Context 1
... order to refine the search, inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined (Table 3). Studies including adult women having undergone FGM and presenting sexual dysfunction assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and its different domains were selected. ...

Citations

... This is largely due to difficulties involved in measuring sexuality in finding an appropriate comparison group as well as the complex interplay between physical, psychological and sociocultural aspects of sexuality (Esho, 2012;Johnson-Agbakwu and Warren, 2017). Thus, some studies find increased risk of impaired sexual function among women who have undergone FGC (Esho et al., 2017;Rouzi et al., 2017;Buggio et al., 2019;Pérez-López et al., 2020;Nzinga et al., 2021) while others do not (Obermeyer, 2005;Catania et al., 2007;Abdulcadir, 2016). Many of these studies, however, do not distinguish between the different types of FGC or variations in the anatomical extent of the cutting. ...
... Impaired sexual function is characterized by difficulty moving through the stages of sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm, but also involves the subjective experience of sexual satisfaction (Rosen et al., 2000). Many of the existing studies investigating the effects of FGC on sexual function have used predefined questionnaires such as the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) (Catania et al., 2007;Ismail et al., 2017;Rouzi et al., 2017;Pérez-López et al., 2020;Nzinga et al., 2021). The FSFI is a wellused tool for measuring desire, subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and pain (Rosen et al., 2000), but is not adapted to or validated for use among women with FGC or for many of the various cultural settings women with FGC belong to. ...
Article
Full-text available
Female genital cutting (FGC) is a traditional practice, commonly underpinned by cultural values regarding female sexuality, that involves the cutting of women's external genitalia, often entailing the removal of clitoral tissue and/or closing the vaginal orifice. As control of female sexual libido is a common rationale for FGC, international concern has been raised regarding its potential negative effect on female sexuality. Most studies attempting to measure the impact of FGC on women's sexual function are quantitative and employ predefined questionnaires such as the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). However, these have not been validated for cut women, or for all FGC-practicing countries or communities; nor do they capture cut women's perceptions and experiences of their sexuality. We propose that the subjective nature of sexuality calls for a qualitative approach in which cut women's own voices and reflections are investigated. In this paper, we seek to unravel how FGC-affected women themselves reflect upon and perceive the possible connection between FGC and their sexual function and intimate relationships. The study has a qualitative design and is based on 44 individual interviews with 25 women seeking clitoral reconstruction in Sweden. Its findings demonstrate that the women largely perceived the physical aspects of FGC, including the removal of clitoral tissue, to affect women's (including their own) sexual function negatively. They also recognized the psychological aspects of FGC as further challenging their sex lives and intimate relationships. The women desired acknowledgment of the physical consequences of FGC and of their sexual difficulties as “real” and not merely “psychological blocks”.
Article
We aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on female sexual function in women with female genital mutilation (FGM) in Somalia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on women with FGM attending the gynaecologic outpatient clinic of our hospital, between March and June 2021, using a validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire with a physical examination based on FGM typing. Those women who refused to participate, those with mental illness, uncontrolled systemic disease, drug, alcohol, or khat addiction, pregnant, genital prolapse, gynaecological or urological cancer, previous pelvic surgery, premature ovarian failure, genital skin diseases, drug use that affects sexual function and those with or suspected of having COVID-19 infection were excluded. A total of 201 sexually active women enrolled, with a mean age of 29 (14–55) years. Comparison of FSFI scores and the COVID-19 pandemic, a statistically significant worsening in the mean FSFI scores and all its domains (p<.001, for each). All of the domains of the FSFI were determined higher before and during the pandemic except pain. There is a decline in female sexual functioning during the COVID-19 outbreak in women with FGM. FGM is a major public health concern necessitating urgent response in Somalia. • Impact statement • What is already known on this subject? As it stands, there is a body of research on sexual behaviour during COVID-19 pandemic, but a lack of conclusive evidence. However, our knowledge of the sexual function of women with FGM during the COVID-19 pandemic is largely based on very limited data. • What do the results of this study add? There is a decline in female sexual functioning during COVID-19 pandemic in women with female genital mutilation in Somalia. • What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? FGM is a major public health problem necessitating urgent response worldwide. There is an urgent need to implement FGM prevention programmes and raise public awareness in order to eradicate this harmful practice.