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Electron flow in electrolysis.  

Electron flow in electrolysis.  

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Green is attractive and beautiful. Green chemistry has attracted scientists and researchers from various fields. Electrolysis is considered as green electrochemistry, because electrochemical process can be stopped and controlled at any time and at any stage of the reaction. Usually water is used as the solvent. Corrosive acids are not used. Toxic c...

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... Electron generation occurs at one place; the electron moves through a medium, and reaches a particular site. The electron is generated at the anode and it moves through the electrical circuit outside the solution system. It enters the solution system through the cathode and travels towards the anode through a medium which is called an electrolyte (Fig. 1). During this process many chemical reactions take place. The important components of this process are a source of AC electricity, a rectifier to produce DC current, an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte solution. An ammeter is connected in series, and a voltmeter in parallel. This experimental setup can be used for a process called ...
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... ferrocyanide was dissolved in 10 mL of water in an undivided cell. 5 g of NaCl were added. A rusted mild steel was pickled and cleaned with water. It was used as anode. Graphite was used as cathode. A potential of 6 volts was applied for 5 minutes. Current density was 250 mA/cm 2 . The solution turned blue due to the formation of Prussian blue (Fig. 10). ...
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... UV-visible absorption spectrum of prussian blue (PB) prepared by chemical method (by mixing aqueous solutions of potassium ferricyanide and ferrous sulphate) is shown in Fig. 11. Peaks appeared at 275 nm and 750 nm. It is observed (Fig. 12) that the UV-visible absorption spectrum of prepared electrochemically PB matches with that prepared chemically. Thus, the formation of PB by electrochemical method from mild steel is confirmed. Figure 13. Emission spectrum of Prussian blue (chemical ...
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... UV-visible absorption spectrum of prussian blue (PB) prepared by chemical method (by mixing aqueous solutions of potassium ferricyanide and ferrous sulphate) is shown in Fig. 11. Peaks appeared at 275 nm and 750 nm. It is observed (Fig. 12) that the UV-visible absorption spectrum of prepared electrochemically PB matches with that prepared chemically. Thus, the formation of PB by electrochemical method from mild steel is confirmed. Figure 13. Emission spectrum of Prussian blue (chemical ...
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... the formation of PB by electrochemical method from mild steel is confirmed. Figure 13. Emission spectrum of Prussian blue (chemical method). ...
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... sizes of the PB nano particles prepared by chemical method are found to be 41.19 nm, 52.95 nm and 55.90 nm (Fig. 21). The sizes of the PB nano particles prepared by electrochemical method are found to be 41.12 nm, 52.86 nm, 58.74 nm and 64.61 nm (Fig. 22). ...
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... potassium tartrate (SPT). A potential difference of 6 volts was applied for 5 minutes. The current density was 50 mA/cm 2 . The copper ions produced at anode were reduced by reducing agents such as SPT and TSC (Fig. 30). When TSC is used as reducing agent, the CuNPs show peaks at 228 nm, 275 nm and 681 nm in the UV-visible absorption spectrum (Fig. 31). When SPT is used as reducing agent, peaks appear at 224 nm, 256 nm and 691 nm (Fig. 32). The slight shifts in the position of peaks may be due to the size of the nanoparticles. The CuNPs are found to be UV-fluorescent (λ ex ) =300 nm (Figs. 33, 34). Figure 34. Emission spectrum of CuNPs (SPT ...
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... main poly aniline structure is shown in Fig. 49. The FTIR spectra (KBr) of the poly aniline produced confirm the presence of benzenoid stretches (Fig.50), C=N quinoidal units (Fig. 51) and -NH stretches (Fig.52). Thus, electrochemically generated poly aniline is confirmed. Figure 52. FTIR spectrum of PANI ...

Citations

... Next, in order to establish the classes of inorganic components, the samples were studied using the spectral analysis methods IR Fourier spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The method of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) made it possible to identify the functional groups and main classes of inorganic compounds and binding media [6][7][8][9]. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (micro-RS) made it possible to then establish a list of the specific chemical compounds contained in various structural elements of the samples [10][11][12][13]. This approach enabled identification of the organic binders contained in the sample and an evaluation of the degree of their polymerization, which is related to their age or level of ageing [14,15]. ...
... In the IR spectrum of the brown layer, the set of absorption bands corresponding to kaolinite (912, 1008 and 1030 cm −1 ) was more pronounced, and the intensity of the band from white lead was much higher than in the case of the green layer. The low-intensity absorption band with a maximum at 2083 cm −1 observed in the spectrum of the green and brown layers probably referred to vibrations of CN bonds of Prussian blue present in these regions (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 ) [9], which agreed with the elemental analysis results, (there is a detectable amount of iron). For the light ground, a typical spectrum of white lead was observed with maxima of absorption bands at 676, 838, 1052 and 1400 cm −1 , and the dark ground, according to the analysis, consisted of almost pure kaolinite, according to the presence of typical absorption bands in the region of 3600-3700 cm −1 related to vibrations of OH groups [21]. ...
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This paper reports on activities carried out as part of a pre-conservation studies of the painting by Dmitry Levitsky, "The Portrait of F.P. Makerovsky in a Masquerade Costume" (1789, the State Tretyakov Gallery). Samples were taken and prepared for further study within the following algorithm. Using optical microscopy of cross-sections of the samples taken, structural elements of layered compositions were revealed and external differences between them were established. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to evaluate the elemental composition of the painting surface and cross-sections of samples. Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to clarify the elemental composition of each of the structural elements of the samples taken, their submi-cro-and microdimensional inclusions, to map the distribution of chemical elements over the studied surface, and to determine the dispersion of organic and inorganic components contained in the material. Micro-FTIR was used to identify functional groups and to determine the main classes of inorganic compounds, as well as binders, used, including in the local analysis of micro-inclusions. The list of specific chemical compounds in the composition of the studied paint layers and grounds, which included an examination of the varnish coating, was determined with micro-Raman spectroscopy using data obtained by the above methods. As a result of the study, complementary information was obtained on the chemical composition of the inorganic components used, of the binder and of the varnish coating , which is required for further conservation of this work of art.
... Principles of green chemistry[2]. ...
Chapter
Ethyl lactate (EL) has an important role as a green solvent, not only to put into practice the 12 principles of green chemistry, but also to achieve a long-term Sustainable Development Goal for a more economical and environmentally benign solvent for use in different industries and in food preparations. EL is produced from the esterification reaction of lactic acid and ethanol, especially from the fermentation of agro-based materials. In this chapter, an overview of EL properties, production, and the pharmaceutical applications is highlighted. The other areas discussed are the advantages and disadvantages as a solvent for dissolving/dispersing bioactive compounds, isolation of phytochemical constituents from natural sources, and practical applications in topical therapy for dry skin disorders and cosmetics, chiral synthesis, and controlled drug delivery.
... Next, in order to establish the classes of inorganic components, the samples were studied using the spectral analysis methods IR Fourier spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The method of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) made it possible to identify the functional groups and main classes of inorganic compounds and binding media [6][7][8][9]. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (micro-RS) made it possible to then establish a list of the specific chemical compounds contained in various structural elements of the samples [10][11][12][13]. This approach enabled identification of the organic binders contained in the sample and an evaluation of the degree of their polymerization, which is related to their age or level of ageing [14,15]. ...
... In the IR spectrum of the brown layer, the set of absorption bands corresponding to kaolinite (912, 1008 and 1030 cm −1 ) was more pronounced, and the intensity of the band from white lead was much higher than in the case of the green layer. The low-intensity absorption band with a maximum at 2083 cm −1 observed in the spectrum of the green and brown layers probably referred to vibrations of CN bonds of Prussian blue present in these regions (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 ) [9], which agreed with the elemental analysis results, (there is a detectable amount of iron). For the light ground, a typical spectrum of white lead was observed with maxima of absorption bands at 676, 838, 1052 and 1400 cm −1 , and the dark ground, according to the analysis, consisted of almost pure kaolinite, according to the presence of typical absorption bands in the region of 3600-3700 cm −1 related to vibrations of OH groups [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This paper reports on activities carried out as part of a pre-conservation studies of the painting by Dmitry Levitsky, “The Portrait of F.P. Makerovsky in a Masquerade Costume” (1789, the State Tretyakov Gallery). Samples were taken and prepared for further study within the following algorithm. Using optical microscopy of cross-sections of the samples taken, structural elements of layered compositions were revealed and external differences between them were established. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to evaluate the elemental composition of the painting surface and cross-sections of samples. Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to clarify the elemental composition of each of the structural elements of the samples taken, their submicro- and microdimensional inclusions, to map the distribution of chemical elements over the studied surface, and to determine the dispersion of organic and inorganic components contained in the material. Micro-FTIR was used to identify functional groups and to determine the main classes of inorganic compounds, as well as binders, used, including in the local analysis of micro-inclusions. The list of specific chemical compounds in the composition of the studied paint layers and grounds, which included an examination of the varnish coating, was determined with micro-Raman spectroscopy using data obtained by the above methods. As a result of the study, complementary information was obtained on the chemical composition of the inorganic components used, of the binder and of the varnish coating, which is required for further conservation of this work of art.