... Cambodia's climate is dominated by the annual monsoon cycle, the northeast monsoon (dry season) and southwest monsoon (wet season). The temperature reaches its highest values in March and April during the dry season with values between 30 1C and 40 1C . ...
... Per capita consumption of electricity was reached to 190 kWh in 2011 . Although the electricity demand is increasing by average 19.0% per annum, the majority of the people living in rural and remote areas have no access to electricity . Table 4 shows the main source of households lighting in urban and rural parts of Cambodia in 2009 . ...
The role of energy services in social and economical developments is well recognized. However, rural populations in developing countries are deprived of affordable and reliable energy services. Batteries are considered as potential and relatively cheap source of power for home lighting in remote rural areas. These can be charged at affordable fee at Battery Charging Stations (BCSs) with a diesel generator and/or solar BCSs. Diesel generators are emitting CO2 green house gas and contributing to environmental pollution. While, the Solar Battery Charging Stations (SBCSs) with battery backup (i) address the issue of environmental pollution, (ii) reduce the production and use of fossil fuels, and (iii) also prevent the energy intermittency in rainy or cloudy days.
... Rice straw and husks offer an immense potential to create bioenergy in Cambodia. The development of RE could be a significant solution to accelerate the power sector development . Under the Renewable Electricity Action Plan (REAP) 20022012, the Cambodian government has been encouraging private sector investments in renewable and more affordable power resources, including support for rice husk power generation plants . ...
The role of energy in overall social and economical developments is well recognized. However, most energy providers are reluctant to venture in rural regions of developing countries. These regions are generally characterized by: low-income populations, minimum access to electricity, rare access to financial services or loans. In this paper we present the potential of rice husk for rural electrification in Cambodia. Rice husk is locally abundant at almost no cost, with a production over 9.3 million tons paddy rice in 2014 for a total population of about 15 million people. The conversion of rice husk into electricity through gasification or thermally generated electricity is a well-known technology. Rice husk can contribute in a sustainable manner to grant access to electricity to Cambodian rural population and is more reliable and competitive with reference to other renewable energy sources of electricity. The present investigation focuses on the study of self-sustaining energy service model to provide grid quality power to rural populations without the need of subsidies. In Cambodia, many rice mills are operating in rural and semi-urban areas. Some of these mills are now using rice husk for electricity production for industries and rural households, generally for lighting at low cost. We believe that the power systems focusing on both power requirements for the industry such rice mills and power requirements for the people living in the neighboring villages/rural areas at affordable tariff could become the most appropriate solution for the sustainable rural electrification. Along with the potential of rice husk for rural electrification in Cambodia, we present a financially viable business model to provide the grid quality power to rural population without grant or subsidy.
... Cambodia focuses mainly on the development of hydro-power electricity plants. Unfortunately there is no specific target on those two policies regarding the share of renewable energy in Cambodia's energy mix or the timeframe (Poch 2013). Based on the IRENA country profile, the Government of Cambodia has announced an intention to achieve the target of 15 percent of rural electricity supply from renewables by 2015 (IRENA 2013b). ...
This study develops a new indicator for national and global sustainability. The main components of the EIIW-vita indicator are: the share of renewable energy, the genuine savings rate and the relative "green export" position of the respective countries; it is in line with OECD requirements on composite indicators. As green exports are related to technological progress and environmental-friendly products, there is also a Schumpeterian perspective of this indicator. An extended version furthermore looks at water productivity. The analysis highlights the BRIICS countries as well as the US, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, the UK and Japan. Moreover the special challenges and dynamics of ASEAN countries and Asia are discussed. The book derives key implications for economic and environmental policy and shows that the new global sustainability indicator is not only relevant for green progress, but also useful as a signal for international investors. The construction of the EIIW-vita global sustainability indicator is such that investors, citizens and governments can easily interpret the results. Correlation analysis of the new sustainability indicator with the human development index indicates complementarity, so that a new hybrid superindicator can be constructed. Sustainability rhetoric dominates environmental policy. This fresh assessment of key "pillars" of sustainable economic performance and growth is a valuable contribution to greening the economy, the leitmotiv of the latest Rio Earth Summit. The book places the discussion of sustainability on solid data. The rather surprising results of its new sustainability index should make policy makers rethink their environmental and economic strategies. Many people put the economy first when sustainability concerns are raised, while environmental indicators are often developed without a sense of socio-economic performance. This important new book bridges the gap. It sheds light on crucial indicators such as renewable energies, exporting green goods and services, genuine savings, and water productivity. And it helps to observe the impressive changes at a global scale and in countries such as China. A must read for all experts interested in those issues. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. All rights reserved.
The aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of access to energy (in relation to SDG 7) and energy usage behaviour in households in two provinces in Cambodia, namely Pursat and Kampong Cham. The analytical framework is based on the energy ladder model and the energy stacking model as a starting point for assessing the current household energy profiles. A quantitative survey carried out in late 2015 in 970 households revealed differences in access to electricity between urban, electrified rural, and non-electrified rural districts. In urban areas, households are using multiple (3–4) energy sources compared to rural areas (2–3). The use of electricity through batteries in the non-electrified rural areas remains notable (43%) despite no access to the national grid. The dependence on traditional biomass, especially firewood, remains high (91% of all respondents) for all the sampled households, especially so in rural non-electrified households. The study confirms that households’ energy mix is composed of various energy sources, even when modern energy sources are available as opposed to complete fuel switch. The results also show that electricity use does not automatically lead to increased household income, but is much more complex process than discussed in existing research. The article further discusses the possible causes behind the phenomenon, proposes recommendations for better-informed energy policy, and provides important insights towards sustainable energy transition in Cambodia in the future.
The energy consumption increases year by year due to the growth of the population and the economic conditions. In this context, the Cambodian government promotes and encourages the development of the electrification through several policies; all the villages must be electrified by2020 and at least 70 % of the households will be connected to the network by 2030. Besides, lots of non-electrified homes are equipped with solar panels so as to have access to the electricity. Then,the objective of this thesis is to develop planning tools of the low voltage distribution network to contribute to the electrification of the country. The first part of this thesis focuses on the development of architecture’s optimization methods to minimize the capital expenditure (CAPEX)and operational expenditure (OPEX) while respecting both topological and electrical constraints(current and voltage) and integrating the uncertainties on the future development of the low voltage customers. The second part of the thesis proposes a new planning solution so as to integrate the current and future solar productions on the low voltage network. This solution consists in adding centralized storage (in urban and rural areas) and decentralized storage (in rural areas). The main advantages would be first to reduce the consumption peak of the medium voltage /low voltage transformer and consequently to reduce the medium voltage investments but also to size low voltage"microgrids" which can be autonomous a big part of the year. A technical and economic comparison with the classic solution of reinforcement allows estimating the interest of this new solution.
The energy consumption increases year by year due to the growth of the population and theeconomic conditions. In this context, the Cambodian government promotes and encourages thedevelopment of the electrification through several policies; all the villages must be electrified by2020 and at least 70 % of the households will be connected to the network by 2030. Besides, lotsof non-electrified homes are equipped with solar panels so as to have access to the electricity. Then,the objective of this thesis is to develop planning tools of the low voltage distribution network tocontribute to the electrification of the country. The first part of this thesis focusses on thedevelopment of architecture’s optimization methods to minimize the capital expenditure (CAPEX)and operational expenditure (OPEX) while respecting both topological and electrical constraints(current and voltage) and integrating the uncertainties on the future development of the low voltagecustomers. The second part of the thesis proposes a new planning solution so as to integrate thecurrent and future solar productions on the low voltage network. This solution consists in addingcentralized storage (in urban and rural areas) and decentralized storage (in rural areas). The mainadvantages would be first to reduce the consumption peak of the medium voltage /low voltagetransformer and consequently to reduce the medium voltage investments but also to size low voltage"microgrids" which can be autonomous a big part of the year. A technical and economic comparisonwith the classic solution of reinforcement allows estimating the interest of this new solution.
This chapter investigates the cost of deployment of low-carbon technologies (LCTs) in India, Indonesia, China, Cambodia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam to successfully achieve their Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) targets by 2030, through the deployment and upscaling of their prioritized technologies. Solar PV is found to be the top priority technology to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in most of the selected countries, followed by biomass and wind power technologies. Taking note of the low-carbon resource potential available, the results indicate that China, Cambodia, Indonesia and Vietnam could meet more than 80% their emission targets using one LCT. India and Thailand can meet more than 90% its emission target with a combination of its top two prioritised technologies. Other countries would require a combination of technologies apart from their prioritized technology to meet their INDC target. The costs of deployment have been considered using Net Present Value (NPV) that encompasses the following costs and revenues: capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, financing costs, grants and subsidies and revenues (sale of electricity and CER credits) at the present. For all investments, the NPV is positive indicating that they are financially viable.
Three ASEAN member states, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar (CLM)—listed as the least developed countries (LDC)—had tremendous economic growth in the last decade, higher than the ASEAN average. Unfortunately, this is also translated into the high growth of GHG emissions. Noting their vulnerable position to the impact of the climate change, the Governments have looked to a variety of low-carbon technologies (LCTs) to help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease GHG emissions. Heavily focus on the programme for the rural development and rely mostly on hydro as the main renewable energy sources, in recent years, tremendous strides have been made to advance low-carbon energy systems, as reflected in their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). However, as the least developed countries with limited financial resources, the Governments have difficulties in innovating, scaling up investment, bringing down the system costs, implementing the right policy frameworks and interconnecting large amounts of variable renewable energy supply into the grid. To this, it is important for these countries to tap the collaboration with all, not only international development bank such as World Bank or Asian Development Bank, but also with various key knowledge partners.
Hace tres años el Worldwatch Institute desarrolló una metodología holística para aconsejar a los gobiernos sobre el diseño de estrategias nacionales de energía que se basan en los potenciales técnicos específicos de un país, que consideran su clima particular de inversión y sus barreras financieras y que benefician económica y socialmente a su pueblo. Al diseñar estas Hojas de Ruta de Energía Sostenible para muchos lugares del mundo, hemos descubierto que las soluciones de energía limpia —energía renovable, eficiencia energética y distribución inteligente de energía— son los enfoques más apropiados para crear el desarrollo sostenido y económicamente confiable que se necesita urgentemente para satisfacer las necesidades y aspiraciones de la humanidad. “La Ruta hacia el Futuro para la Energía Renovable en Centroamérica” se concentra en el estatus de las tecnologías de energía renovable en Centroamérica y analiza las condiciones para su desarrollo en el futuro. Identifica importantes brechas de conocimiento e información y evalúa barreras clave tanto de finanzas como de políticas, además de hacer sugerencias sobre cómo superarlas. De este modo, este estudio es la “hoja de ruta de la hoja de ruta” que cubre las mejoras que deben ocurrir con respecto a componentes clave del sistema de energía sostenible y establece la metodología y el fundamento necesario para estrategias integrales de energía a nivel nacional. Este reporte es la culminación de la primera fase de la Iniciativa de Energía Sostenible en Centroamérica del Worldwatch Institute, lanzada en conjunto con el Centro Latinoamericano para la Competitividad y el Desarrollo Sostenible (CLACDS) de INCAE Business School. Las etapas siguientes del proyecto cubrirán las brechas de conocimiento e información que se identifican aquí y harán sugerencias concretas para reformas financieras y políticas a nivel regional y nacional. La meta final de esta iniciativa es integrar y sincronizar la pericia técnica, socioeconómica, financiera y política disponible en una sola herramienta completa para el planeamiento energético. La Hoja de Ruta para la Energía Sostenible en Centroamérica, que será el resultado de este esfuerzo, delineará el curso para una ruta de desarrollo energético compatible con el clima, que permita un futuro sostenible a nivel social, económico y ambiental para la región. Los conocimientos y resultados de nuestro trabajo actual y nuestro trabajo futuro se distribuirán ampliamente —entre gobiernos, tomadores de decisiones no gubernamentales, expertos académicos y de la industria, líderes comunales y locales, los medios y el público en general— para garantizar que todos los centroamericanos entiendan las múltiples rutas potenciales que hay hacia el futuro. Alexander Ochs Director del Proyecto y Autor Corresponsal