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Electric vehicle production and battery production for five major electric vehicle manufacturing regions in 2017, with circle sizes proportional to the percentage of global electric vehicle production. 

Electric vehicle production and battery production for five major electric vehicle manufacturing regions in 2017, with circle sizes proportional to the percentage of global electric vehicle production. 

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Technical Report
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This white paper provides a detailed assessment of light-duty electric vehicle sales and manufacturing, including the associated battery production and its suppliers. We analyze where electric vehicle models are being assembled and where their battery cells are being produced, and compare that to where the consumer markets are developing. We also i...

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Context 1
... dominance of China's battery production would be more pronounced if electric bus battery production were included, because most electric buses and their batteries are manufactured in China. Figure 6 shows the electric vehicle production and the electric vehicle battery production in 2017 for major markets. The figure shows electric vehicle production on the vertical axis and electric vehicle battery pack production on the horizontal axis. ...
Context 2
... figure shows electric vehicle production on the vertical axis and electric vehicle battery pack production on the horizontal axis. The diagonal line superimposed on Figure 6 helps to illustrate which markets were importing batteries for their electric vehicle production in 2017. Those markets above the line have greater electric vehicle production than battery production in their region, thus are net battery pack importers, whereas those below are net exporters. ...

Citations

... The likely future raw material demand and the challenges related to the supply required for the transition to electric mobility have been covered in several reports and peer-reviewed articles [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Current estimates on the global installed production capacity for LIBs span from 250 GWh/year [16] to 640 GWh/year [6]. This wide range suggests significant uncertainty due to the lack of accessible, up-to-date and transparent data. ...
... This wide range suggests significant uncertainty due to the lack of accessible, up-to-date and transparent data. Furthermore, several reports present forecasts on the planned production capacity in 2025 or 2030, but the reported values differ considerably (figure 1) [6,16,17]. The scattered reported values highlight how the possible future gaps between LIB supply and demand can occur under the quick adoption of EVs. ...
Article
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The decarbonization of the transport sector requires a rapid expansion of global battery production and an adequate supply with raw materials currently produced in small volumes. We investigate whether battery production can be a bottleneck in the expansion of electric vehicles and specify the investment in capital and skills required to manage the transition. This may require a battery production rate in the range of 4–12 TWh/year, which entails the use of 19–50 Mt/year of materials. Strengthening the battery value chain requires a global effort in many sectors of the economy that will need to grow according to the battery demand, to avoid bottlenecks along the supply chains. Significant investment for the establishment of production facilities (150–300 billion USD in the next 30 years) and the employment of a large global workforce (400k–1 million) with specific knowledge and skillset are essential. However, the employment and investment required are uncertain given the relatively early development stage of the sector, the continuous advancements in the technology and the wide range of possible future demand. Finally, the deployment of novel battery technologies that are still in the development stage could reduce the demand for critical raw materials and require the partial or total redesign of production and recycling facilities affecting the investment needed for each factory.
... Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the storage technology of choice in state-of-the-art EVs, leading to a substantial growth in global LIB production shown in Figure 1. Asia is currently leading the large-scale LIB industry, but Europe plans to invest more in this industry [4][5][6][7][8]. Like most other technological revolutions, the decarbonization of the energy sector will accelerate inversely proportional to the technology's costs. ...
Article
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A sustainable shift from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) is essential to achieve a considerable reduction in emissions. The production of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) used in EVs is an energy-intensive and costly process. It can also lead to significant embedded emissions depending on the source of energy used. In fact, about 39% of the energy consumption in LIB production is associated with drying processes, where the electrode drying step accounts for about a half. Despite the enormous energy consumption and costs originating from drying processes, they are seldomly researched in the battery industry. Establishing knowledge within the LIB industry regarding state-of-the-art drying techniques and solvent evaporation mechanisms is vital for optimising process conditions, detecting alternative solvent systems, and discovering novel techniques. This review aims to give a summary of the state-of-the-art LIB processing techniques. An in-depth understanding of the influential factors for each manufacturing step of LIBs is then established, emphasising the electrode structure and electrochemical performance. Special attention is dedicated to the convection drying step in conventional water and N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)-based electrode manufacturing. Solvent omission in dry electrode processing substantially lowers the energy demand and allows for a thick, mechanically stable electrode coating. Small changes in the electrode manufacturing route may have an immense impact on the final battery performance. Electrodes used for research and development often have a different production route and techniques compared to those processed in industry. The scalability issues related to the comparison across scales are discussed and further emphasised when the industry moves towards the next-generation techniques. Finally, the critical aspects of the innovations and industrial modifications that aim to overcome the main challenges are presented.
... Vehicle electrification is considered a public good, a necessary response to reduce emissions in the face of climate change, so much so that the demand for electrification is primarily pushed by policy, rather than consumer preference or industry competition (Lutsey et al., 2018;Sperling, 2018 ...
... Though Canada is a major sales market 5 for several EV models, such as the Tesla Model S and Model X, and the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt, little to no vehicle or battery cell production for EVs is done in Canada (Lutsey et al., 2018). Tesla battery cells are produced in Japan and Chevrolet batteries in South Korea; both companies' vehicles are assembled in the United States (Lutsey et al., 2018). ...
... Though Canada is a major sales market 5 for several EV models, such as the Tesla Model S and Model X, and the Chevrolet Bolt and Volt, little to no vehicle or battery cell production for EVs is done in Canada (Lutsey et al., 2018). Tesla battery cells are produced in Japan and Chevrolet batteries in South Korea; both companies' vehicles are assembled in the United States (Lutsey et al., 2018). GM has announced its "first fully-dedicated electric vehicle assembly plant," beginning production in late 2021, in Detroit-Hamtramck, Michigan (GM, 2020). ...
Technical Report
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Connected, autonomous, shared, and electric (CASE) vehicles could fundamentally change transportation, making it safer, cleaner, and more accessible. They also present new opportunities for Canadian industry, including in software development, motor vehicle and parts manufacturing, shared mobility services, infotainment, and infrastructure, as well as in data management, analytics, and security. Prototypes of low-speed autonomous shuttles and taxis are already being tested and are likely to appear on urban roads in the coming decades. There are autonomous delivery vehicles on the road today, and virtually every new vehicle currently being produced has some level of advanced driving assistance system and connectivity. These technologies will continue to evolve, connecting more vehicles to each other, to infrastructure, and to other users on the road. While their appearance in Canada may seem inevitable, the timing of their arrival and widespread adoption and acceptance remains uncertain, as does the likelihood that their benefits will be fully realized. Autonomous vehicles also raise important privacy and security concerns, could potentially worsen air quality and traffic congestion, and increase transportation inequities. Avoiding undesirable outcomes and achieving the benefits of CASE vehicles in Canada will require meeting significant technical and societal challenges and will depend on how industry, consumers, and governments respond to problems and opportunities today. Present-day planning and policy decisions related to public transit, ride sharing, and active transportation will affect how, when, and where CASE vehicles are used in Canada in the next 10, 20, and 50 years. https://cca-reports.ca/reports/connected-and-autonomous-vehicles-and-shared-mobility/
... The rest (i.e., 862,000 chargers: 598,000 slow chargers and 264,000 fast chargers) are publicly accessible chargers. The top three countries or regions that have the highest number of publicly accessible chargers are China, the US, and the EU [21]. The number of fast charging points grew by 60 percent in 2019 compared with 2018, and 80 percent (i.e., 211,000 chargers) of those were located in China. ...
... For instance, in China, state enterprises and their affiliated companies (e.g., Xiongan Lianxing Network Technology of State Grid Corporation of China) have dominated the EV charging station market [22] whereas in the US, the private sectors (e.g., automotive companies) have been a major driving force in the expansion of the charging infrastructure. For example, Tesla and ChargePoint (owned by Daimler and Siemens) have successfully expanded its charging stations across the country [21]. However, in the EU, there are many players (both established firms and start-ups) which provide charging solutions and services. ...
Article
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This article explored the development of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations in Thailand between 2015 and 2020. This research aimed to study the main players and examine their goals, strategies, and operations in the EV charging business as well as the key issues that these charging operators have encountered in developing charging stations. The authors collected qualitative data (direct interviews with managers, video interviews, news, research articles, industry reports and press releases of EV charging operators) and used a constant comparison approach to analyze the data. The study found that after 2015, the Thai government created technology-push policies to kick-start the investment in the EV charging station business (such as subsidies for charging stations, setting a temporary selling price for electricity and building an EV charging consortium). The main players in the Thai charging business include: (1) oil and gas companies; (2) electricity state enterprises; (3) green energy companies; (4) start-ups; and (5) automotive companies. The goals of investing in the charging business for the oil and gas incumbents were to find a new growth engine and to prepare for the potential disruption in the energy sector whereas the green energy companies and start-ups wanted to capture customer bases in this promising industry. These players tended to use a partnership strategy to expand charging networks at key locations (malls, restaurants, offices). Regarding the key issues in expanding the EV charging network, the operators suggested that the high upfront investment costs, small number of EV users, and the high electricity prices (from the demand charge and usage guarantee fee) make them ‘wait-and-see’ and cautiously expand the charging network. Finally, we found that the government tried to address the constraints by setting up a national EV policy committee to accelerate EV adoption and EV charging stations in Thailand. The committee also set a fixed and reduced electricity price for charging operators.
... One such sector today is the car industry, where some Member States are specifically encouraging energy-saving and climate-friendly developments. Globally, priority will also be given to automotive factories for the development and production of electric cars (Lutsey et al., 2018). But it is also not uncommon for temporary tax breaks to take place in general to improve the liquidity of companies. ...
Article
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Purpose: Car production is one of the most important bases of the European Union's economy. The study examines the negative effects of the Covid-19 epidemic on the new car market in the European Union in the first half of 2020. Design/Approach/Methodology: First, the economic and emotional elements of buying new cars are presented to consumers. The methodological part presents the data on new cars sold and the decrease in GDP during the period under review. It then examines, using a correlation calculation, how strong the relationship is between GDP as a dependent variable and new car sales as an independent variable. Findings: The analysis confirms the hypothesis that the Union economy is highly dependent on emissions from the automotive industry. Using data collected for research, the study also confirms that the outbreak caused panic in the new car market. The dissertation sees this as evidenced by the fact that the median value calculated from the decrease in new car sales per member state is more than three times higher than the value of GDP decline in the member states. Practical Implications: The experience of previous crises demonstrates that these crises have the potential to fundamentally change consumer behavior and that these changes persist in consumers. This is likely to be the case after the Covid-19 epidemic. Those working in the automotive sector need to be prepared for these changes. Originality/Value: Due to the high economic weight of the Union's car industry, it is impossible to reach the pre-crisis level of EU GDP without rehabilitating the sector.
... Together, the 11 markets identified account for about 92% of ZEV sales through 2019. Sales trends and the global distribution of ZEVs have important implications for understanding ZEV supply dynamics because most electric vehicles are manufactured in the same region in which they were sold (Lutsey, Grant, Wappelhorst, & Zhou, 2018). Figure 2 illustrates the broader dynamics of the global electric vehicle industrial developments from 2010 through 2019, including the electric vehicle sales, electric vehicle production, and electric vehicle battery production in China, Europe, the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Canada. ...
... Figure 5 illustrates the growth in global electric vehicle battery cell production capacity in gigawatt-hours (GWh) from 2020 through 2025, with battery production companies shown on the left and region of production shown on the right. The figure is based on many different research reports and industry announcements (Argus Media Group, 2019a; International Energy Agency, 2019; Lutsey et al., 2018;Michaelis et al., 2018;Tsiropoulos, Tarvydas, & Lebedeva, 2018;Yang & Jin, 2019). The companies shown in the left of Figure 5 are listed based on the region in which they are headquartered, which is shown by the clusters of companies in each general color category. ...
Technical Report
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This white paper analyzes fundamental ZEV supply questions regarding zero-emission vehicles. It assesses how planned electric vehicle manufacturing compares to government near-term regulations and long-term targets, and how future battery production capacity compares to global demand. The analysis quantifies the number of materials such as lithium, nickel, cobalt, and graphite that are needed in the electric vehicle transition and compares them against raw materials reserves. The work also assesses the potential for large scale battery recycling to reduce the need for additional mining and discusses the opportunity for government policies to maximize ZEV supply.
... Overall, fuel efficiency standards in combination with ZEV promotion policies and biofuel targets represent the main elements of the prevailing strategy in the G20 jurisdictions to cope with CO 2 emissions from the road transport sector [56][57][58]. All economies use standards as core regulation policy embedded in a broader policy mix that differs from country to country. ...
Article
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The European Union aims at net-zero emissions by 2050. A key sector to achieve this goal is road transport, where emissions show no signs of reducing but continue to grow. A review of policies undertaken by EU member states and the G20 to reduce transport emissions reveals that both present and planned policies focus on binding supply-side measures, but offer only weak demand-side incentives. To address this imbalance, we developed a downstream, demand-side policy prototype through an expert interview design process. We call the prototype "cap-and-surrender" because it caps road emissions, and then allocates tradable emission allowances to individual vehicles that drivers surrender at each fill-up. Allowance pricing, both by the state and in the secondary market, is designed to incentivize decarbonization of the sector. Though the system would require significant investment, its revenue potential to the state should exceed this investment by several multiples. We discuss the potential economic, environmental and social impacts of the policy, as assessed by European transport experts. We find that the approach can deliver significant transport emission reductions in an effective and economically efficient manner. Through the appropriate design of national allocation rules and a gradual phasing in of cap and surrender, potential negative social consequences can be mitigated, and public acceptance of the policy promoted.
... To meet the power demands, nano wire batteries that can withstand large number of charge recharge cycles, are seen as a replacement to solid state lithium ion batteries [1]. Nano wires possess high storage density of electrons, fast rate of diffusion and hence can also be used for operation involving high power sources like metros and other automotives [2]. Gold nano wires have been coated with manganese oxide and a gel type electrolyte to serve as safety protection layer. ...
Article
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In the wake of 'SMART' everything, from gadgets to homes, power revolution is inevitable and around the corner. While chips and operating systems are becoming more efficient to save power it would still not be possible to meet the demand without advances in battery technology. Universities are looking at alternate materials, fabrication techniques and charging mechanisms to meet the power requirements. Several big technology and automobile companies have realized the limitations of Lithium ion batteries and are looking at new technologies. This paper, summarizes the challenges in two important aspects of battery technology namely types of batteries and battery health monitoring techniques.
... Electric Vehicle Sales, Electric Vehicle Production, and Electric Vehicle Battery Production by Region from 2010 Through 2017Source:Lutsey, Grant, Wappelhorst, and Zhou (2018). ...
Article
The decarbonization of the energy system requires the adoption of a mix of zero or low carbon intensive technological options, which depends on their cost-effectiveness, their potential to reduce emissions and on social acceptance issues. Transport electrification combined with renewable energy sources (RES) deployment in power generation is a key decarbonization option assessed in many recent studies that focus on national or international climate policies. The penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) together with a gradual retirement of conventional oil-fuelled vehicles implies that a new ‘trade ecosystem’ will be created characterized by different features (move from OPEX to CAPEX) and supply chains. A key component of the EVs are the Lithium-Ion batteries, the manufacturing of which is employment intensive and constitutes an essential element of the EVs that can act as a driver for establishing comparative advantages and increasing EV market shares. Our study focuses on the size of the EV market that can be established within ambitious global and EU decarbonization scenarios and investigates the economic, trade and employment implications considering the production chain of EVs (i.e., the regional production of batteries and vehicles). We use the large-scale global GEM-E3-FIT model to capture the trade dynamics of decarbonization scenarios. We find that under ambitious climate policies, the global size of the clean energy technologies will be US$44 trillion cumulatively over the 2020–2050 period. 44per cent of the market relates to EVs, which will mostly be produced outside EU. For the EU to capture a significant segment of the EV value chain, it needs to increase clean energy R&D and associated supportive policies so as to boost the domestic capacity to produce competitively batteries. JEL: F11, F13, F16, F18, F62, F68
... Although many of the battery materials are global commodities, the raw materials are usually sourced from different countries (Olivetti et al. 2017). In addition, LIBs are currently manufactured in dozens of plants scattered throughout Asia, America, and Europe, while a handful of LIB factories with production capacities greater than 5 GWh per year are expected to be built in China, South Korea, Hungary, Poland, and Sweden (Lutsey et al. 2018). As the world ramps up LIB production, the global LIB supply chain is likely to become more dynamic and geographically diverse. ...
Article
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Electric vehicles based on lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have seen rapid growth over the past decade as they are viewed as a cleaner alternative to conventional fossil-fuel burning vehicles, especially for local pollutant (nitrogen oxides [NOx], sulfur oxides [SOx], and particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 and 10 μm [PM2.5 and PM10]) and CO2 emissions. However, LIBs are known to have their own energy and environmental challenges. This study focuses on LIBs made of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC), since they currently dominate the United States (US) and global automotive markets and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. The effects of globalized production of NMC, especially LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111), are examined, considering the potential regional variability at several important stages of production. This study explores regional effects of alumina reduction and nickel refining, along with the production of NMC cathode, battery cells, and battery management systems. Of primary concern is how production of these battery materials and components in different parts of the world may impact the battery’s life cycle pollutant emissions and total energy and water consumption. Since energy sources for heat and electricity generation are subject to great regional variation, we anticipated significant variability in the energy and emissions associated with LIB production. We configured Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model as the basis for this study with key input data from several world regions. In particular, the study examined LIB production in the US, China, Japan, South Korea, and Europe, with details of supply chains and the electrical grid in these regions. Results indicate that 27-kWh automotive NMC111 LIBs produced via a European-dominant supply chain generate 65 kg CO2e/kWh, while those produced via a Chinese-dominant supply chain generate 100 kg CO2e/kWh. Further, there are significant regional differences for local pollutants associated with LIB, especially SOx emissions related to nickel production. We find that no single regional supply chain outperforms all others in every evaluation metric, but the data indicate that supply chains powered by renewable electricity provide the greatest emission reduction potential.