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Effects of larval density on life history metrics for planktotrophic larvae. Ordinary least squares regression lines are displayed only for groups with significant (P # 0.05) correlations (-all data, --Crepidula fornicata, --Neogastropoda, -d -Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda, and ddd Heterobranchia). (A) Larval density and time to metamorphosis. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ 2.7891x + 19.759, R 2 $ 0.1245), Caenogastropoda that are neither C. fornicata nor neogastropods (Y $ 1.9633x + 14.744, R 2 $ 0.1758), and Heterobranchia (Y$ 5.1343x + 28.85, R 2 $ 0.4495). (B) Larval density and % survivorship. Significant correlations for C. fornicata (Y$ -14.655x + 92.64, R 2 $ 0.1198), Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda (Y$ 24.531x + 53.818, R 2 $ 0.0577), and Heterobranchia (Y$ -14.407 + 71.654, R 2 $ 0.2006). (C) Larval density and growth rate. Significant correlations for C. fornicata (Y$ -35.021x + 48.806, R 2 $ 0.0486) and Neogastropoda (Y$ 16.721x + 15.263, R 2 $ 0.1815).

Effects of larval density on life history metrics for planktotrophic larvae. Ordinary least squares regression lines are displayed only for groups with significant (P # 0.05) correlations (-all data, --Crepidula fornicata, --Neogastropoda, -d -Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda, and ddd Heterobranchia). (A) Larval density and time to metamorphosis. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ 2.7891x + 19.759, R 2 $ 0.1245), Caenogastropoda that are neither C. fornicata nor neogastropods (Y $ 1.9633x + 14.744, R 2 $ 0.1758), and Heterobranchia (Y$ 5.1343x + 28.85, R 2 $ 0.4495). (B) Larval density and % survivorship. Significant correlations for C. fornicata (Y$ -14.655x + 92.64, R 2 $ 0.1198), Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda (Y$ 24.531x + 53.818, R 2 $ 0.0577), and Heterobranchia (Y$ -14.407 + 71.654, R 2 $ 0.2006). (C) Larval density and growth rate. Significant correlations for C. fornicata (Y$ -35.021x + 48.806, R 2 $ 0.0486) and Neogastropoda (Y$ 16.721x + 15.263, R 2 $ 0.1815).

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The goal of this article was to use a systematic review of studies on the larval stages of gastropods reared to metamorphosis to determine whether there are general patterns for the effects of temperature, rearing density, and food availability on larval development and performance among species, major taxa, and modes of development. Most studies d...

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... the 645 experimental treatments with planktotrophic larvae, only 140 (21.7%) reported both larval density and time to metamorphosis. For planktotrophic larvae, overall, there was a significant positive correlation between larval density and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 140, P < 0.0001, r ¼ 0.354; Fig. 3). At higher larval densities, time to metamorphosis was longer. This pattern was driven primarily by species of Caenogastropoda other than Crepidula fornicata that were not in the Neogastropoda (n ¼ 51, P ¼ 0.0022, r ¼ 0.420; Fig. 3) and the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 24, P ¼ 0.0003, r ¼ 0.707; Fig. 3). For Neogastropoda (n ¼ 18, P ¼ 0.1027) ...
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... significant positive correlation between larval density and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 140, P < 0.0001, r ¼ 0.354; Fig. 3). At higher larval densities, time to metamorphosis was longer. This pattern was driven primarily by species of Caenogastropoda other than Crepidula fornicata that were not in the Neogastropoda (n ¼ 51, P ¼ 0.0022, r ¼ 0.420; Fig. 3) and the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 24, P ¼ 0.0003, r ¼ 0.707; Fig. 3). For Neogastropoda (n ¼ 18, P ¼ 0.1027) and C. fornicata (n ¼ 47, P ¼ 0.825), there was no correlation between larval density and time to ...
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... to metamorphosis (n ¼ 140, P < 0.0001, r ¼ 0.354; Fig. 3). At higher larval densities, time to metamorphosis was longer. This pattern was driven primarily by species of Caenogastropoda other than Crepidula fornicata that were not in the Neogastropoda (n ¼ 51, P ¼ 0.0022, r ¼ 0.420; Fig. 3) and the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 24, P ¼ 0.0003, r ¼ 0.707; Fig. 3). For Neogastropoda (n ¼ 18, P ¼ 0.1027) and C. fornicata (n ¼ 47, P ¼ 0.825), there was no correlation between larval density and time to ...
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... treatments with planktotrophic larvae. There was no overall effect of larval density on survivorship (n ¼ 311, P ¼ 0.065), or for just the Caenogastropoda (n ¼ 283, P ¼ 0.982) or for Neogastropoda (n ¼ 45, P ¼ 0.354). There was a negative correlation between larval density and survivorship for Crepidula fornicata (n ¼ 115, P < 0.0001, r ¼ -0.346; Fig. 3) and a negative correlation between survivorship and larval density for Heterobranchia (n ¼ 28, P ¼ 0.017, r ¼ -0.448; Fig. 3). There was a positive correlation between larval density for species of caenogastropod other than C. fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 123, P ¼ 0.008, r ¼ 0.241; Fig. ...
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... for just the Caenogastropoda (n ¼ 283, P ¼ 0.982) or for Neogastropoda (n ¼ 45, P ¼ 0.354). There was a negative correlation between larval density and survivorship for Crepidula fornicata (n ¼ 115, P < 0.0001, r ¼ -0.346; Fig. 3) and a negative correlation between survivorship and larval density for Heterobranchia (n ¼ 28, P ¼ 0.017, r ¼ -0.448; Fig. 3). There was a positive correlation between larval density for species of caenogastropod other than C. fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 123, P ¼ 0.008, r ¼ 0.241; Fig. ...
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... fornicata (n ¼ 115, P < 0.0001, r ¼ -0.346; Fig. 3) and a negative correlation between survivorship and larval density for Heterobranchia (n ¼ 28, P ¼ 0.017, r ¼ -0.448; Fig. 3). There was a positive correlation between larval density for species of caenogastropod other than C. fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 123, P ¼ 0.008, r ¼ 0.241; Fig. ...
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... there was no effect of larval density on growth (n ¼ 283, P ¼ 0.075), or for all caenogastropods (n ¼ 256, P ¼ 0.383; Fig. 3); however, there was a significant positive correlation for Neogastropoda (n ¼ 49, P ¼ 0.0023, r ¼ 0.427; Fig. 3) and a significant negative correlation between larval density and growth for Crepidula fornicata (n ¼ 99, P ¼ 0.028, r ¼ -0.221; Fig. 3). There was also no correlation between larval density and growth for the Heterobranchia ...
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... there was no effect of larval density on growth (n ¼ 283, P ¼ 0.075), or for all caenogastropods (n ¼ 256, P ¼ 0.383; Fig. 3); however, there was a significant positive correlation for Neogastropoda (n ¼ 49, P ¼ 0.0023, r ¼ 0.427; Fig. 3) and a significant negative correlation between larval density and growth for Crepidula fornicata (n ¼ 99, P ¼ 0.028, r ¼ -0.221; Fig. 3). There was also no correlation between larval density and growth for the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...
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... of larval density on growth (n ¼ 283, P ¼ 0.075), or for all caenogastropods (n ¼ 256, P ¼ 0.383; Fig. 3); however, there was a significant positive correlation for Neogastropoda (n ¼ 49, P ¼ 0.0023, r ¼ 0.427; Fig. 3) and a significant negative correlation between larval density and growth for Crepidula fornicata (n ¼ 99, P ¼ 0.028, r ¼ -0.221; Fig. 3). There was also no correlation between larval density and growth for the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...