Effects of fucoxanthin on thermogenesis and lipolysis: the muscle (a) and the adipose tissue (b). Fucoxanthin plays an anti-obesity effect mainly by stimulating uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). This protein, situated in the mitochondrial inner cellular membrane, is usually found in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and it is not expressed in WAT in absence of any stimulation. Physiologic bodily metabolism determines heat production: this process is named thermogenesis and UCP-1 dissipates the pH-gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation, releasing chemical energy as heat. Fucoxanthin was found to promote not only UCP1 protein and mRNA expression but also β3-adrenergic receptor (Adrb3), which is responsible for lipolysis and thermogenesis. This increased sensitivity to sympathetic nerve stimulation may lead to a further up-regulation of fat oxidation in WAT. This adaptive thermogenesis plays a crucial role in energy expenditure as heat, in order to limit weight gain and to favor weight loss. 

Effects of fucoxanthin on thermogenesis and lipolysis: the muscle (a) and the adipose tissue (b). Fucoxanthin plays an anti-obesity effect mainly by stimulating uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). This protein, situated in the mitochondrial inner cellular membrane, is usually found in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and it is not expressed in WAT in absence of any stimulation. Physiologic bodily metabolism determines heat production: this process is named thermogenesis and UCP-1 dissipates the pH-gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation, releasing chemical energy as heat. Fucoxanthin was found to promote not only UCP1 protein and mRNA expression but also β3-adrenergic receptor (Adrb3), which is responsible for lipolysis and thermogenesis. This increased sensitivity to sympathetic nerve stimulation may lead to a further up-regulation of fat oxidation in WAT. This adaptive thermogenesis plays a crucial role in energy expenditure as heat, in order to limit weight gain and to favor weight loss. 

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Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level infla...

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... adaptive thermogenesis plays a crucial role in energy expenditure as heat, in order to limit weight gain and to favor weight loss. Fucoxanthin was found to promote not only UCP1 protein and mRNA expression in WAT of obese animals but also β3-adrenergic receptor (Adrb3), which is responsible for lipolysis and thermogenesis (Figure 4) [35]. This increased sensitivity to sympathetic nerve stimulation may lead to a further up-regulation of fat oxidation in WAT. ...

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... The weight management effect of carotenoids was found by Mounien et al. [111]. Gammone and D'Orazio [112] found the anti-obesity effect of fucoxanthin (carotenoid from marine algae). Carotenoid lycopene, which accumulates significantly in ripe tomatoes, demonstrated protection against diabetes and obesity [113]. ...
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The obesity pandemic is one of society's most urgent public health concerns. A third of the global adult population may fall under obese or overweight by 2025, suggesting a rising demand for medical care and an exorbitant cost of healthcare expenditure in the coming years. Generally, the treatment strategy for obese patients is largely patient-centric and needs dietary, behavioral, pharmacological, and sometimes even surgical interventions. Given that obesity cases are rising in adults and children and lifestyle modifications have failed to produce desired results, so the need for medical therapy adjunct to lifestyle modifications is vital for better managing of obesity. Most existing or past drugs for obesity treatment target satiety or monoamine pathways and induce a feeling of fullness in patients, while drugs like orlistat are targeted against intestinal lipases. However, many medications targeted against neurotransmitters showed adverse events in patients, thus being withdrawn from the market. Alternatively, the combination of some drugs has been successfully tested in obesity management. However, the demand for novel, safer, and more efficacious pharmaceutical drugs for weight management does exist. The present review elucidates the current understanding of the available anti-obesity medicines of synthetic and natural origin, their main mechanisms of action, and the shortcomings associated with current weight-management drugs.
... Wakame includes several components, such as minerals, vitamins, dietary fber, polyphenols, and peptides [12]. Wakame provides many benefts to organisms, including anticancer [13], antihypertensive [14,15], and antimetabolic syndrome efects [16,17]. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that wakame might efectively prevent the onset of T2DM, one of the metabolism-related diseases. ...
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... Previous reports of this algaederived metabolite have highlighted its role in inducing UCP1 in the white adipose tissue mitochondria. Fatty acid oxidation, heat production, insulin resistance improvements, and decrease blood glucose levels are the main effects of their use [98]. ...
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... Therefore, L. japonica can promote food digestion, beauty, treatment of constipation and other functions [6]. L. japonica also has health care functions, such as regulating blood sugar and blood lipids, enhancing human resistance, lowering blood pressure, etc. [7]. In addition, there are still many effects of L. japonica that we need to study and develop and the market has great potential for development. ...
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... It has been reported that FX has several biological properties, since it can protect against oxidative stress, tumors, bacteria, viruses, obesity and neuron injury, with minimal toxicity and side effects (7). At present, FX can be used as a weight loss health care product (8). Clinically, as a drug, FX can be used in the treatment of skin cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer and other cancers (9). ...
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... As a natural carotenoid, fucoxanthin (FX) has important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, hypoglycemic, and lipid-lowering functions, indicating that FX is a natural product with potential medicinal value [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. Fucoxanthinol (FXOH) is an alcohol derivative and a vital metabolite of FX obtained in vivo from FX through ester bond cleavage and has stronger physiological activity and better bioavailability than FX [8][9][10][11][12]. ...
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A novel approach to producing high-purity fucoxanthinol (FXOH) was exploited as a sustainable method to maximize fucoxanthin (FX) utilization. Through fusing the genes of cholesterol esterase and SpyTag and then expressing them in Escherichia coli, the fusion chimera was self-assembled into insoluble active aggregates by SpyTag, which could be regarded as carrier-free immobilization. The immobilization yield of the active cholesterol esterase aggregates could reach 60%. They have expressed good activity retention at 92.48% and 60.13% after 3 and 12 cycles, respectively, which is an exciting finding. The conversion ratio of FX to FXOH is 95.02%, which is remarkably higher than those realized via the conventional chemical reduction method (55.86%) and the enzymatic hydrolysis method by free cholesterol esterases (84.51%). The purity of FXOH obtained by this method is as high as 98%, which is much higher than those obtained by other methods. Thus, a promising method for simultaneously purifying and immobilizing active cholesterol esterase aggregates is demonstrated in this study by SpyTag tailoring. In addition, this study provides an eco-friendly method for producing high-purity FXOH from FX in a highly efficient manner.
... They showed that carotenoid extract (CE) inhibits the increase in total cholesterol, cholesterol-ester, and triglycerides and reduces the lipid droplet accumulation induced by palmitate. The major bioactive component of CE, fucoxanthin, may control the expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes such as ACCα, fatty acid synthase, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1, and SCD1; additionally, it could decrease the mRNA levels of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1/sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1/SOAT1) in HepG2 cells [139,140]. Finally, CE elevated CPT1A's mRNA level, suggesting that fucoxanthin functions by promoting the beta-oxidation pathway to reduce lipid droplet accumulation and production. Furthermore, Mayer et al. explain that CE appears to have modifying effects on lipid metabolism by increasing the mRNA levels of CPT1A, a gene associated with fatty acid oxidation, and decreasing the mRNA levels of lipogenesis genes, indicating that fucoxanthin CE may serve as a powerful anti-NAFLD therapy. ...
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... Fucoxanthinol enters the bloodstream and accumulates mainly in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen, while amarouciaxanthin A is mostly found in the adipose tissue. The bioavailability and absorption rate of fucoxanthin are related to the food composition, particularly the type of oil and fatty acids (Gammone and D'Orazio, 2015). The fucoxanthin metabolites remain active and are shown to serve as free radical scavengers and singlet oxygen quenchers and alleviate neuron injury. ...
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... Fucoxanthin decreases plasma and hepatic concentrations of triglycerides. It also reduces expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thus decreasing malonyl-CoA formation, fatty acid synthase expression and saturated long-chain fatty acid synthesis [27][28][29]. ...
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... S. dimorphus contains bioactive compounds that have the potential as drugs and supplements because they contain pigments as antioxidants, and insoluble fiber provides heart protection, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic effects [15,16] . The content of folic acid and pigments that function as antioxidants from S. dimorphus can treat aplastic anemia in rats, by increasing blood hematological parameters and repairing bone marrow damage [17] . ...
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