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The article presents the z-level milling strategy, which is one of the most important strategy in a CAM system. In case of z-level milling, we can use end mill with corner radus for finishing milling of steep walls. The aim of this article is present the effect of the parameters of part (gradient of the surface, direction of the cutting), tool (cor...

## Contexts in source publication

**Context 1**

... cause of it is the less vibration, because the parallel motion of the x and y axes don't permit to develop the harmful vibration. The Fig.4 shows the effect of the other parameters to the surface roughness, the parallel and 45° are separated. ...

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## Citations

... The insert programming may be in done on standard 3 axis [44] or a 5 [18,28,45] axis machining centers. As the technology progresses there is introduction of new tool path cutting strategies such plunge milling [46][47][48][49][50], trochoidal milling [51][52][53][54], pencil milling [54], optimized constant finishing [55][56][57], raster milling [44] and so on. There is a lot of work done on the software side. ...

This paper focuses on providing economical methods for manufacturing of aluminum die casting inserts, for various optimized solutions developed the constraint of the existing manufacturing setup is also considered. The techniques are implemented on a die casting inserts of Honda Activa-Mission Case component which are made from hot die steel. The present optimized solution is derived for minimization of manufacturing rope length of the die casting dies to get an optimized solution at every stage of manufacturing. The implementation of the optimize techniques and the strategies are carried in three segments. Combine electrode concept and Re-born concept are the two segments which reduce the total physical operational time of the die which will ultimately leads to saving the overall manufacturing cost and increase the profit. The proposed solution opens up new avenues for similar automobile components by setting benchmark to reduce the manufacturing rope length and increase the profit.

... Surface topography is also a key element between process parameters and the performance of manufactured objects [4]. Cusp height is mathematically related to the surface roughness parameter [5]. ...

... This residual material is commonly referred to as the Cusp height parameter. The relationship between cusp height and surface roughness is obvious, but it is not a simple linear function, and other parameters have significant effects as well [5]. Cusp height on constant-Z finishing strategy can be seen in Figure 7, its value can be calculated using the following equation [6]: ...

The machining process using a combination of steep and shallow strategy is the most widely used strategy for the finishing process on complex models that have many areas of steep walls and shallow floors. Using a single machining strategy on the entire model can lead to long machining times and poor surface finish quality. The steep and shallow strategy can efficiently detect parts of the model that have steep contours and those that have shallow contours. In other words, this strategy can analyze the model surface angle at runtime to identify and divide the machining zone based on the slope angle or commonly called the threshold angle. In this context, the selection of the threshold angle is very important when carrying out the finishing process on free-form surfaces to produce a good surface quality. This study was conducted to determine the optimum threshold angle that can produce the minimum surface roughness between steep areas and shallow areas. Threshold angles that were varied were 20°, 30° and 40°. Machining was carried out using Ballnose type cutting tools with a diameter of 6 mm. Then the stepover and stepdown is 0.1 mm for the finishing process on the surface of the propeller product made of Aluminum by using a CNC Milling machine. From the experimental results, the most optimum threshold angle is at an angle of 40° with an average roughness value in the steep area of 1.9 mm and in the shallow area of 1.3mm and a total average roughness of 1.6mm.

... The characteristics of tool path have a significant impact on machining costs [6]. Generally, even in the case of geometries with free-form surfaces, constant Z-level (2.5D) strategies are used in rough milling [7,8]. There are two basic tool path strategies for conventional 2.5D operations: directionparallel and contour-parallel strategies [9]. ...

In the case of 2.5D rough milling operations, machining efficiency can significantly be increased by providing a uniform tool load. This is underpinned by the fact that uniform load has a positive effect on both tool life and machining time. Unfortunately, conventional contour-parallel tool paths are unable to guarantee uniform tool loads. However, nowadays there are some advanced path generation methods which can offer a constant tool load by controlling the cutter engagement angle. Yet, the spread of these non-equidistant offsetting methods is hindered by their dependence on complex calculations. As a solution to this problem, the Fast Constant Engagement Offsetting Method (FACEOM), developed in the scope of our previous study, is seen to be taking a step towards reducing computational needs. In this paper, suggestions for further improvements of FACEOM are presented. Decreasing the number of path points to be calculated is made possible by implementing adaptive step size and spline interpolation. Through simulation tests, it was also analysed which of the numerical methods utilized for solving boundary value problems can be applied to obtain the shortest calculation time during tool path generation. The practical applicability of the algorithm has been proved by cutting experiments. With respect to research results, this paper also describes how a tool path created by the algorithm can be adapted to controllers of CNC machine tools. Solutions presented in this paper can promote a wider application of a modern path generation method that ensures constant tool loads.

Increasing urge to raise production rate and production quality in the industry brings new requests and challenges. One of them is demand for accuracy and precision of produced parts. Especially in the CNC machining, where the expectations are high, the companies face new issues. Therefore, it is very important to recognize, understand and cope with the technological factors influencing the production accuracy and surface quality of CNC machined parts.