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Effect of temperature on life history metrics for planktotrophic larvae. Regression lines [ordinary least squares (OLS)] are displayed only for groups with significant (P # 0.05) correlations (-all data, --Crepidula fornicata, --Neogastropoda, -d -Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda, and ddd Heterobranchia). (A) Temperature and time to metamorphosis. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ -0.8642 + 41.614, R 2 $ 0.0711), C. fornicata (Y$ -0.6556x + 34.036, R 2 $ 0.0942), and Heterobranchia (Y$ 5.9578x -94.724, R 2 $ 0.2011). (B) Temperature and % survivorship. Significant correlations for C. fornicata (Y$ 4.3415x -7.2052, R 2 $ 0.233) and Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata and Neogastropoda (Y $ -3.1308 + 143.86, R 2 $ 0.0767). (C) Temperature and growth rate. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ 1.3745x -3.5672, R 2 $ 0.032), C. fornicata (Y$ 5.124x -75.149, R 2 $ 0.123), and Neogastropoda (Y$ 1.9137x -25.282, R 2 $ 0.1483).

Effect of temperature on life history metrics for planktotrophic larvae. Regression lines [ordinary least squares (OLS)] are displayed only for groups with significant (P # 0.05) correlations (-all data, --Crepidula fornicata, --Neogastropoda, -d -Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda, and ddd Heterobranchia). (A) Temperature and time to metamorphosis. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ -0.8642 + 41.614, R 2 $ 0.0711), C. fornicata (Y$ -0.6556x + 34.036, R 2 $ 0.0942), and Heterobranchia (Y$ 5.9578x -94.724, R 2 $ 0.2011). (B) Temperature and % survivorship. Significant correlations for C. fornicata (Y$ 4.3415x -7.2052, R 2 $ 0.233) and Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata and Neogastropoda (Y $ -3.1308 + 143.86, R 2 $ 0.0767). (C) Temperature and growth rate. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ 1.3745x -3.5672, R 2 $ 0.032), C. fornicata (Y$ 5.124x -75.149, R 2 $ 0.123), and Neogastropoda (Y$ 1.9137x -25.282, R 2 $ 0.1483).

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The goal of this article was to use a systematic review of studies on the larval stages of gastropods reared to metamorphosis to determine whether there are general patterns for the effects of temperature, rearing density, and food availability on larval development and performance among species, major taxa, and modes of development. Most studies d...

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Context 1
... the 645 experimental treatments with planktotrophic larvae, only 138 (21.4%) reported both temperature and time to metamorphosis. For planktotrophic larvae, overall, there was a significant negative correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 138, P ¼ 0.0016, r ¼ -0.266; Fig. 2). With warmer temperature, larvae developed faster. This pattern, however, was driven primarily by Crepidula fornicata, which displayed a strong negative correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 47, P ¼ 0.036, r ¼ -0.307; Fig. 2). There was no correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis for ...
Context 2
... correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 138, P ¼ 0.0016, r ¼ -0.266; Fig. 2). With warmer temperature, larvae developed faster. This pattern, however, was driven primarily by Crepidula fornicata, which displayed a strong negative correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 47, P ¼ 0.036, r ¼ -0.307; Fig. 2). There was no correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis for caenogastropods other than C. fornicata or neogastropods (n ¼ 48, P ¼ 0.168), or for just the Neogastropoda (n ¼ 18, P ¼ 0.937). There was, however, a positive correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis for the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 25, P ¼ 0.025, ...
Context 3
... There was no correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis for caenogastropods other than C. fornicata or neogastropods (n ¼ 48, P ¼ 0.168), or for just the Neogastropoda (n ¼ 18, P ¼ 0.937). There was, however, a positive correlation between temperature and time to metamorphosis for the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 25, P ¼ 0.025, r ¼ 0.448; Fig. 2). Species are sorted within each major clade by the number of publications and then the number of experimental treatments for that species. ...
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... temperature and survivorship for Crepidula fornicata (n ¼ 116, P < 0.0001, r ¼ 0.483), the single most studied species with planktotrophic larvae. There was, however, a negative correlation between temperature and survivorship for the remaining caenogastropods other than C. fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 127, P ¼ 0.002, r ¼ -0.277; Fig. ...
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... were data on growth and temperature for 273 (42.3%) experimental treatments with planktotrophic larvae. Overall, there was a significant positive effect of temperature on feeding larval growth (n ¼ 273, P < 0.003, r ¼ 0.179; Fig. 2). There was no correlation between temperature and growth for the caenogastropods that were not Crepidula fornicata or neogastropods (n ¼ 109, P ¼ 0.216), but there was a positive correlation for C. fornicata (n ¼ 87, P ¼ 0.0008, r ¼ 0.351; Fig. 2) and for the neogastropods (n ¼ 50, P ¼ 0.0057, r ¼ 0.385; Fig. 2). All experiments with ...
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... significant positive effect of temperature on feeding larval growth (n ¼ 273, P < 0.003, r ¼ 0.179; Fig. 2). There was no correlation between temperature and growth for the caenogastropods that were not Crepidula fornicata or neogastropods (n ¼ 109, P ¼ 0.216), but there was a positive correlation for C. fornicata (n ¼ 87, P ¼ 0.0008, r ¼ 0.351; Fig. 2) and for the neogastropods (n ¼ 50, P ¼ 0.0057, r ¼ 0.385; Fig. 2). All experiments with heterobranchs were conducted at the same ...
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... (n ¼ 273, P < 0.003, r ¼ 0.179; Fig. 2). There was no correlation between temperature and growth for the caenogastropods that were not Crepidula fornicata or neogastropods (n ¼ 109, P ¼ 0.216), but there was a positive correlation for C. fornicata (n ¼ 87, P ¼ 0.0008, r ¼ 0.351; Fig. 2) and for the neogastropods (n ¼ 50, P ¼ 0.0057, r ¼ 0.385; Fig. 2). All experiments with heterobranchs were conducted at the same ...