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Effect of food per capita on life history metrics for planktotrophic larvae. Ordinary least squares regression lines are displayed only for groups with significant (P # 0.05) correlations (-all data, --Crepidula fornicata, --Neogastropoda, -d -Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda, and ddd Heterobranchia). (A) Food per capita and growth rate. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ 9 3 10 7 x + 28.894, R 2 $ 0.0414), C. fornicata (Y$ 4 3 10 -6 x + 37.629, R 2 $ 0.1399), Neogastropods (Y$ 7 3 10 -5 x + 9.169, R 2 $ 0.3136), and Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda (Y $ 5 3 10 -7 + 26.972, R 2 $ 0.0467). (B) Food per capita and time to metamorphosis. Significant correlation for Heterobranchia (Y$ -2 3 10 -5 x + 40.786, R 2 $ 0.371). (C) Food per capita and % survivorship for C. fornicata alone (Y$ -2 3 10 -6 x + 86.808, R 2 $ 0.041). (D) Food per capita and % survivorship for all taxonomic groups except C. fornicata. Significant correlations for Neogastropoda (Y$ 0.0003x + 2.7539, R 2 $ 0.7866) and Heterobranchia (Y $ 4 3 10 -5 x + 40.308, R 2 $ 0.1719).

Effect of food per capita on life history metrics for planktotrophic larvae. Ordinary least squares regression lines are displayed only for groups with significant (P # 0.05) correlations (-all data, --Crepidula fornicata, --Neogastropoda, -d -Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda, and ddd Heterobranchia). (A) Food per capita and growth rate. Significant correlations for all planktotrophs (Y$ 9 3 10 7 x + 28.894, R 2 $ 0.0414), C. fornicata (Y$ 4 3 10 -6 x + 37.629, R 2 $ 0.1399), Neogastropods (Y$ 7 3 10 -5 x + 9.169, R 2 $ 0.3136), and Caenogastropoda other than C. fornicata or Neogastropoda (Y $ 5 3 10 -7 + 26.972, R 2 $ 0.0467). (B) Food per capita and time to metamorphosis. Significant correlation for Heterobranchia (Y$ -2 3 10 -5 x + 40.786, R 2 $ 0.371). (C) Food per capita and % survivorship for C. fornicata alone (Y$ -2 3 10 -6 x + 86.808, R 2 $ 0.041). (D) Food per capita and % survivorship for all taxonomic groups except C. fornicata. Significant correlations for Neogastropoda (Y$ 0.0003x + 2.7539, R 2 $ 0.7866) and Heterobranchia (Y $ 4 3 10 -5 x + 40.308, R 2 $ 0.1719).

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The goal of this article was to use a systematic review of studies on the larval stages of gastropods reared to metamorphosis to determine whether there are general patterns for the effects of temperature, rearing density, and food availability on larval development and performance among species, major taxa, and modes of development. Most studies d...

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Context 1
... larval concentration) and time to metamorphosis. For planktotrophic larvae, overall, there was no significant correlation between per capita food availability and time to metamorphosis (n ¼ 111, P ¼ 0.538). Within taxa, there was also no correlation except for the heterobranchs, which showed a negative correlation (n ¼ 24, P ¼ 0.002, r ¼ -0.609; Fig. 5). Removal of the outlier data point did not change the significance of this correlation (n ¼ 23, P ¼ 0.004, r ¼ -0.573). There was no correlation for all caenogastropods together (n ¼ 87, P ¼ 0.566), for caenogastropods other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 31, P ¼ 0.856), or for C. fornicata (n ¼ 47, P ¼ ...
Context 2
... were data for survivorship and per capita food availability for 259 (40.2%) experimental treatments with planktotrophic larvae. There was no overall effect of per capita food density on survivorship (n ¼ 259, P ¼ 0.653). But, there was a significant positive correlation for the Heterobranchia (n ¼ 28, P ¼ 0.028, r ¼ 0.415; Fig. 5). There was no correlation between per capita food density and survivorship for the Caenogastropoda overall (n ¼ 231, P ¼ 0.798) or the Caenogastropoda other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 102, P ¼ ...
Context 3
... were data on per capita food availability and growth for 242 (37.3%) experimental treatments with planktotrophic larvae. Overall, there was a significant positive effect of per capita food density on growth (n ¼ 242, P ¼ 0.001, r ¼ 0.202; Fig. 5). This pattern was consistent for all of the caenogastropods together (n ¼ 215, P ¼ 0.006, r ¼ 0.187; Fig. 5), for caenogastropods other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 106, P ¼ 0.026, r ¼ 0.217; Fig. 5), for just C. fornicata (n ¼ 82, P ¼ 0.005, r ¼ 0.374; Fig. 5), and for just the neogastropods (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...
Context 4
... were data on per capita food availability and growth for 242 (37.3%) experimental treatments with planktotrophic larvae. Overall, there was a significant positive effect of per capita food density on growth (n ¼ 242, P ¼ 0.001, r ¼ 0.202; Fig. 5). This pattern was consistent for all of the caenogastropods together (n ¼ 215, P ¼ 0.006, r ¼ 0.187; Fig. 5), for caenogastropods other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 106, P ¼ 0.026, r ¼ 0.217; Fig. 5), for just C. fornicata (n ¼ 82, P ¼ 0.005, r ¼ 0.374; Fig. 5), and for just the neogastropods (n ¼ 27, P ¼ 0.002, r ¼ 0.560; Fig. 5). There was no correlation, however, for the heterobranchs (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...
Context 5
... Overall, there was a significant positive effect of per capita food density on growth (n ¼ 242, P ¼ 0.001, r ¼ 0.202; Fig. 5). This pattern was consistent for all of the caenogastropods together (n ¼ 215, P ¼ 0.006, r ¼ 0.187; Fig. 5), for caenogastropods other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 106, P ¼ 0.026, r ¼ 0.217; Fig. 5), for just C. fornicata (n ¼ 82, P ¼ 0.005, r ¼ 0.374; Fig. 5), and for just the neogastropods (n ¼ 27, P ¼ 0.002, r ¼ 0.560; Fig. 5). There was no correlation, however, for the heterobranchs (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...
Context 6
... food density on growth (n ¼ 242, P ¼ 0.001, r ¼ 0.202; Fig. 5). This pattern was consistent for all of the caenogastropods together (n ¼ 215, P ¼ 0.006, r ¼ 0.187; Fig. 5), for caenogastropods other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 106, P ¼ 0.026, r ¼ 0.217; Fig. 5), for just C. fornicata (n ¼ 82, P ¼ 0.005, r ¼ 0.374; Fig. 5), and for just the neogastropods (n ¼ 27, P ¼ 0.002, r ¼ 0.560; Fig. 5). There was no correlation, however, for the heterobranchs (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...
Context 7
... pattern was consistent for all of the caenogastropods together (n ¼ 215, P ¼ 0.006, r ¼ 0.187; Fig. 5), for caenogastropods other than Crepidula fornicata that were not neogastropods (n ¼ 106, P ¼ 0.026, r ¼ 0.217; Fig. 5), for just C. fornicata (n ¼ 82, P ¼ 0.005, r ¼ 0.374; Fig. 5), and for just the neogastropods (n ¼ 27, P ¼ 0.002, r ¼ 0.560; Fig. 5). There was no correlation, however, for the heterobranchs (n ¼ 27, P ¼ ...