Effect of different temperatures on spore germination of Botrytis cinerea (isolate B-134) and gray mold pathogen isolated from Jamaica cherry.
Gray mold of Jamaica cherry caused by Botrytis cinerea was first found in Taiwan during March to June of 2005. The typical symptom of gray mold showed abundant gray mycelia and conidia was observed on the infected fruit of Jamaica cherry after raining season. The pathogen was isolated from infected fruit and cultured on PDA for further fungal morph...
... Our study detected that raises in protein levels coincided with the increase in airborne conidia concentrations as well as an increase of mean temperature in 2017. Chen and Hsieh  found a thermal range for germination of B. cinerea conidia of 16 to 28 • C, what agree with Latorre and Rioja  who pointed out an optimum temperature of 20 • C for conidia germination. Similar values were found in the studied vineyard, with and average mean temperature of 18.13 • C and an average maximum temperature of 25.71 • C during the entire considered flowering period in 2017. ...
Grey mould is a fungal disease responsible for important crop losses in most winemaking regions worldwide. In the present study, we developed immunological techniques for the detection and quantification of Botrytis cinerea conidia germinative material to obtain additional information about epidemic’s development on the vineyard. The study was carried out in a northwest Spain vineyard during the grapevine flowering in 2017 and 2018. An aerobiological study was developed for the identification and quantification of Botrytis cinerea conidia. For the immunological analysis, we developed a specific protein extraction protocol and a standard curve to analyze the cyclone-trap samples by an indirect PTA-ELISA. The airborne B. cinerea protein concentrations showed a similar variation pattern than the airborne conidia concentrations in the atmosphere of the vineyard. We recorded a total of 5673 B. cinerea spores in 2017, and 7562 spores in 2018. Regarding the airborne protein concentrations, we detected 9.692 ng/m3 in 2017 and 7.715 ng/m3 in 2018. Based on the statistical influence of the considered variables, we developed a predictive model able to explain 40% of protein data variability. The resulting methodology based on the combination of immunological techniques and aerobiological monitoring leads to a more reasoned treatment schedule consistent with real phytosanitary vineyard conditions and a more effective responsiveness against the increasing variability associated to climate change on the crop-pathogen system.
In the context of this master thesis, it is important to find answers to general questions regarding processes of infections of phytopathogenic fungi on petunias. The cultivation of ornamental plants during heating season increases in im-portance. The potential to produce Petunia on reduced temperature should reduce the ever increasing costs. The examination of the infection success of Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB at the cultivars ‘Mitchell’, ‘Famous Dark Blue’ and ‘Fantasy Blue’ at temperatures of 12, 5 and 17, 5 °C was the subject of the master thesis on hand. The constant climatic conditions were ensured by using climate chambers. The characterisation of the germs was achieved with classical and molecular methods. The analysis and the exact reaction of the fungi regarding temperature and the relative air humidity were completed by citations of and referrals to specialist literature. During the process of finding a suitable inoculation method of B. cinerea one type showed increased results of hypersensitive reactions. The predominant symptoms did not correspond with the known patterns of gray mould. The infection in the form of brown and black spots on the leaves was very well visible on the upper and lower surfaces. Botrytis cinerea shows significant higher damages on ‘Mitchell’ under cooler conditions. The increase of the relative air humidity in addition to the cooler temperatures resulted in even higher infestation of the plant, the plant in this case being ‘Fantasy Blue’. Altogether it can be stated that the experiments have shown that the increase of the relative air humidity in contrast to the classical experimental setup decreased the level of infestation of the plants. The increase in air humidity did not correlate with an increased infestation. R. solani AG 2-2IIIB was not stimulated to cause higher damages to the petunia types ’Mitchell’ and ‘Fantasy Blue’ by cooler temperatures. The intensity of fungi infestation is not solely due to environmental influences and conditions but is highly dependant on the physiology of the plant itself.