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Effect of Aloe vera extract on serum potassium concentration  

Effect of Aloe vera extract on serum potassium concentration  

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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Aloe vera extract (AvE) on serum electrolytes, urea, and creatinine as indices of renal function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 80 and 130 g were used. Rats were divided into two groups: The control and the test groups (n=6). The test group received 1...

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... was a nonsignificant decrease in the potassium level in the test rats as compared to the control rats (P=0.549) [ Figure 2]. The serum level of bicarbonate also showed a nonsignificant increase in the test rats when compared to that of the control rats (P=0.305) ...

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... Scale bar: 200 µm powder treatment evident from the statistically non-significant change in the level of creatinine and urea. Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, and magnesium are intracellular ions which play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis within the body (Saka et al. 2012). The treatment with Chlorella powder did not cause any statistically significant differences in the serum level of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate compared to vehicle control mice. ...
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Chlorella is a green alga consumed as a dietary food supplement in pulverized form. In addition to its high nutritional value, it is also reported as an excellent detoxifying agent. The Chlorella powder has been reported for removal of mercury, cadmium, and radioactive strontium from the body. The present study evaluated the toxic effect of Chlorella powder (source: Chlorella vulgaris) in Swiss albino mice at acute and sub-acute (28 days repeated dose) doses. In acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies, mice were administered orally with Chlorella powder at single (2000 mg kg−1) and repeated (1000 mg kg−1, once daily for 28 days) doses, respectively. During the study, mice were observed for clinical signs and mortality, weekly body weight, feed and water consumption, and biochemical, hematological, organ weight, and histological parameters. In the acute oral toxicity study, the test item Chlorella produced no change in clinical signs, and no morbidity or mortality was observed throughout the study period. The change in weekly body weight was statistically insignificant compared to the vehicle control group. In the sub-acute oral toxicity study, no statistically significant changes were observed in behavior, body weight, feed and water consumption, and biochemical, hematological, organ weight, and histological parameters compared to vehicle control mice. No morbidity or mortality was observed during the study period. Oral administration of Chlorella at acute and repeated doses in mice showed no toxicity or adverse effect. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level was estimated to be 1000 mg kg−1 body weight per day for male and female mice.
... High serum chloride values above normal are usually associated with kidney injury [44], while low serum chloride values are usually attributed to its excess elimination via urine [45]. These results agree with the study by Saka et al. that suggests oral ingestion of A. vera is associated with electrolyte imbalance [46]. Furthermore, the increased chloride ion levels were of toxicological significance since the values were out of the reference range of (100-107) mmol/L for female Wistar rats aged 8-16 weeks [37]. ...
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Background Several local communities in Central, Western, Eastern, and Northern regions of Uganda have been using the whole leaf extracts of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae) in the treatment of various ailments. Also, several commercial companies sell A. vera as soft drinks in Uganda. However, there are inadequate reports on the toxicities of such preparations. This paper reports the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of whole leaf and green rind of A. vera in Wistar rats. Methods Acute oral toxicity test was carried out in female Wistar rats at doses of 175, 550, 1750, and 5000 mg/kg, p.o. The animals were observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. Similarly, a sub-acute oral toxicity test was performed in both sexes of rats at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, p.o. daily for 28 days. All the groups of animals were monitored for behavioral, morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes, including mortality and compared with respective controls. Body weights were measured weekly while the animals’ relative organ weights, hematological, biochemical, gross, and microscopic pathology were examined on day 29. Results There was no mortality or apparent behavioral changes at the doses tested in acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests. Thus, the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of green rind and whole leaf aqueous extracts was above 5000 mg/kg. Gross anatomy revealed that the rats’ relative spleen weight in green rind extract at 200 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to the control group. The creatinine levels in female rats that received green rind extract and the chloride ion levels in male rats administered whole leaf extract were significantly elevated. Conversely, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) levels significantly decreased at lower doses of the green rind extract compared to the control. Histopathology of the kidney revealed the renal interstitium’s inflammation at doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg of the whole leaf extract. Conclusion The findings demonstrated that A. vera green rind and whole leaf extracts are non-toxic at relatively high doses when used for a short duration. Prolonged use of the aqueous whole leaf extract might be associated with kidney toxicity.
... Furthermore, no renal toxicity was seen due to LVT treatment as evident from the nonsignificant change in the levels of creatinine and urea. Sodium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, phosphate, and magnesium are intracellular ions that play an important role in maintaining homeostasis within the body [31]. They help to regulate muscle contraction, heart and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid-base balance, and much more [32,33]. ...
Article
Laghu vishagarbha taila (LVT) is a medicated oil preparation used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and applied topically for the treatment of painful musculoskeletal and inf lammatory disorders. It contains some mildly poisonous phytoconstituents which may show untoward effects upon application. The present study evaluated the toxicity of LVT in the acute, subacute, and subchronic dermal toxicity study in Wistar rats. LVT was tested for its compliance using physicochemical and analytical parameters as per standard methods prescribed in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, while acute, subacute, and subchronic toxicity studies were carried out as per OECD 402, 410, and 411 guidelines, respectively. In the acute dermal toxicity study, a single dose of LVT (2000 mg/kg) was applied topically to rats, while in subacute and subchronic dermal toxicity study, the rats were topically applied LVT (1000 mg/kg) up to 28 and 90 days, respectively. LVT did not cause any alterations in clinical signs and no mortality or moribund stage was observed. The change in weekly body weight was insignificant compared with the vehicle control group. In subacute and subchronic dermal toxicity study, there were no significant changes in behavior, body weight, feed consumption, biochemical and hematological parameters, organ weight, and histological parameters compared with vehicle control rats. Topical application of single and repeated doses of LVT in rats did not exhibit adverse effects and suggests that the LD50 of LVT is more than 2000 mg/kg in the acute dose and NOAEL is more than 1000 mg/kg/day in repeated dose application.
... However, Diclofenac prevents the synthesis of prostaglandins resulting in renal dysfunction and pathophysiological alterations [88]. Serum creatinine, urea and electrolytes (K + and Na + ) are considered reliable, indirect markers of renal function test parameters and profound alterations in the serum levels of these markers are diagnostic of nephropathy [91][92][93]. Nephrotoxicity was reliably induced by oral administration of a single dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. of diclofenac to rats in this study, evident by markedly increased serum levels of creatinine, urea and electrolytes (K + and Na + ) in rats in the DC group compared to those in the NC group. The impaired glomerular filtration capacity of the kidney is biochemically demonstrated by reduced clearance of creatinine and urea as well as K + and Na + from the circulating blood resulting in increased serum levels, which are sensitive and dramatic indicators of glomerular filtration rate reduction and nephrotoxicity [94]. ...
Article
The in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo hepatocurative and nephrocurative potential of Newbouldia laevis aqueous leaf extract (NLALE) was evaluated. The study used 30 male, albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 180 ± 20 g, of which 25 were intoxicated by oral administration of a single dose of diclofenac (100 mg/kg b. wt.). Animals were treated by oral administration of silymarin (200 mg/kg b. wt.), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg b. wt.) and NLALE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b. wt.) for seven consecutive days before animals were sacrificed on the 8th day and serum/plasma was analyzed for biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Phytochemical screening of NLALE revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids and tannins. The extract scavenged DPPH radical, reduced Fe3+ and inhibited TBARs in comparable manner to ascorbic acid in vitro. NLALE also attenuated diclofenac-induced liver and kidney intoxication as indicated by the significantly (p<0.05) reduced levels of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity: ALT, AST, bilirubin, but increased total protein levels and nephrotoxicity: urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+. The observed effects are dose dependent as the 400 mg/kg b. wt. appeared to be more potent than the 200 mg/kg b. wt. dose. It may be concluded from this study that Newbouldia laevis leaf has ameliorative effect against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity probably through antioxidative mechanism and the curative claim and the folkloric use of the plant in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases have been scientifically validated
... The study of diabetes diagnosed rats has shown that Aloe-Vera extract can decrease plasma levels of LDL, VLDL, and TG while it increases HDL (11). However, Saka et al. showed that oral consumption of Aloe-Vera is associated with impaired kidney function (12). According to the findings on the Aloe-Vera effects on diabetes diagnosed patients and the role of doing exercise in controlling renal function and lipid profile of people with diabetes (4,13), the specifications of favorable activities to maximize effective feedback and to reduce possible side effects are not completely approved. ...
Article
Objective: Renal failure is a complication of diabetes. It can be the risk factor of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise course and Aloe-Vera supplementation on renal function and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial double blind with pre-test and post hoc test analyses with a control group. The studied population included a group of T2DM diagnosed patients among whom 24 men (40-60years) were selected voluntarily and purposefully and were classified into three groups by balanced block randomization method, exercise(E), exercise + supplement (E+S), and control (C), (n=8/group). Combined exercise was planned in two 12-minute repetitive sets with 70% 1RM. Then the participants ran for two 10- minute sets with 70-75% maximum heart rate intensity on treadmill. E+S participants consumed 500 mg/day Aloe Vera for 6 weeks. Obtained data by SPSS-19 software were analyzed using co-variance analysis method with Bonferroni post hoc test (P-value
... Treatment of guinea pigs with A. vera significantly decreased their blood urea levels, while non-143 significantly affecting the serum creatinine levels. Findings were in line with observations of Bolkent et al. (2004), however, there were contradiction with findings of Saka et al. (2012), where a decrease in serum sodium and potassium was reported, while the levels of urea, bicarbonate and creatinine increased considerably. ...
... L'objectif était d'évaluer les effets rénaux ethnopharmacologiques et de tolérance des plantes médicinales afin de prévenir leurs impacts délétères. Ail Liliaceae Alium sativum L. [8] Aloe vera, Aloès Asphodelaceae Aloe barbadensis MILLER [9] Armoise absinthe, Herbe aux vers Asteraceae Artemisia absinthium [10] Asperge officinale Asparagaceae Officinalis asperge [11] Bauhinie pourpre Fabaceae Bauhinia purpurea L. [12] Betterave Amanranthaceae Beta vulgaris [13] Triphala rasayana (3 plantes En effet, ces plantes concourent dans plus de la moitié des cas à la néphroprotection (74%) par l'amélioration de la créatininémie et la prévention de l'altération de la fonction du néphron contre les facteurs d'agressions comme la gentamicine, la ciclosporine et la cisplatine [13,25]. Malgré cette bonne tolérance des plantes médicinales, [3] en 2013 au Maroc dans une enquête sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytothérapie à objectivé 48 plantes nontoxiques pouvant devenir toxiques sous certaines conditions d'utilisation (Allium sativum, Artemisiae absinthium, Artemisia vulgaris, Crocus sativus, Lawsonia inermis, Mentha piperita, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, zingiber officinale…) [3]. ...
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Introduction : La population mondiale, particulièrement celle des pays pauvres, a recours à la phytothérapie pour leurs soins de base. Cependant, certaines plantes ont des effets toxiques. L’objectif était d’évaluer les effets rénaux pharmacodynamiques bénéfique et de tolérance des plantes médicinales afin de prévenir leurs impacts délétères. Matériel et méthodes : Il s’agissait d’une revue bibliographique portant sur les effets bénéfiques ou néfastes des plantes médicinales sur les reins qui a porté sur les articles publiés de janvier 1996 à octobre 2016 (10 ans). Résultats : Nous avons inclus les articles disponibles sur internet (Pubmed, google scholar, Elsevier) et dans les bibliothèques universitaires de l’université Félix Houphouët Boigny, sans distinction d’origine ni de langue de rédaction. Nous avons recensé 31 espèces reparties en 28 familles dont les Fabaceaes et les Lithraceae étaient les plus citées. Quarante-quatre pourcent des plantes avaient causées une hypercréatininémie et 26% une toxicité du parenchyme rénal. Il s’agissait principalement Aloe vera, Archidendron pacijlorium, Aristoloche pistoloche, Artemisia ahsinthium. Crocus sativus, Euphorbia paralias. Conclusion : La phytothérapie incontournable dans nos sociétés émergentes, semble peu cadrer ; ce qui pourrait exposer nos populations à de nombreux effets indésirables surtout rénaux souvent irréversibles. Des mesures en vue d’améliorer, d’évaluer et de canaliser la pratique de la phytothérapie devraient être entreprises.
... The major tests conducted to evaluate renal functionality and monitor renal dysfunctions include creatinine clearance, urea clearance, glomerular filtration rates (GFRs), and serum and urine electrolytes (Sembulingam and Sembulingam 2010). Elevated levels of these indices suggest an impaired ability of the kidneys to filter them from the blood and excrete them in the urine leading to renal dysfunction (Ozdemir et al. 2007, Saka et al. 2012. Findings from this study suggest that N. vogelii is not nephrotoxic and does not pose the risk for atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular morbidities (Kolawole and Sunmonu 2010). ...
Article
Napoleona vogelii is used in traditional medicine for the management of stomach aches, ulcer, and cancers. This study was conducted to investigate the subchronic toxicological effect of methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii on biochemical, hematological, and hormonal profile of male and female rats. Forty rats of both sexes were randomly divided into four groups of 10 rats each and were administered 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract p.o. for 90 d. Ten milliliter per kilogram of distilled water p.o. was administered to control rats. On hematological assessment, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at 400 mg/kg compared to control. Biochemical assessment showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase at 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, compared to control. Hormonal assessment of male rats revealed a significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced level of testosterone at all treatment doses compared to control while estradiol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 100 mg/kg, but significantly (p < 0.0001) increased at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively compared to control in female rats. Findings from this study demonstrate that N. vogelli is relatively safe on oral acute exposure but may possess the potential to cause hepatic dysfunction and infertility in male rats by perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis while conversely enhancing fertility in female rats on subchronic administration.
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa) or Java ginger (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) or curcumin, a biologically active phytochemical or combinatiomn with fennel oil was found to be beneficial, improved patient QoL (due to myorelaxant effect towards the intestinal muscle, involves not only the cholinergic receptors, but also L type Calcium channels) but not statistically significant in IBS symptoms (compared with placebo) [50], [71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80]. Enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system in intestinal pain and motility in IBS is also claimed [81] but no significant difference found with dronabinol/nabilone (synthetic compounds containing cannabinoids found in the marijuana plant) [82][83][84][85][86]. Aloe Vera found to be improved QoL with insignificant/no severity symptom reduction in several studies [87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94] and studies show its carcinogenic potential in the colon [90], [95][96][97][98], nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity [95], [99][100][101][102][103][104] which surely demands very limited use unless necessary. Zingier officinale also showed limited potential in symptom management [105][106][107][108]. Mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium improved QoL in men but not in women [109]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or irritable bowel disease (IBD), is also known as spastic colitis, mucus colitis, and nervous colon. It is a chronic, or long-term, condition, but symptoms tend to change over the years. It's not uncommon for people with IBS to have episodes of both constipation and diarrhea. Symptoms such as bloating and gas typically go away after a bowel movement. There is no cure for IBS. Treatment is aimed at symptom relief. Certain foods as well as stress and anxiety can be triggers for IBS symptoms for many people. Medications are available to ease the symptoms of IBS, but some patients feel better trying natural remedies instead of (or in addition to) conventional drugs. Objective of the Study: To detail conventional and alternative treatment approaches of IBS. Limitation of The Study: Surgical considerations of IBS patients are not included in this article. Findings: Lifestyle modification, specially food habit alteration mostly effective along with psychological counseling and medication adherence. Practical Implications: GPs, gastroenterologists, medicine specialists, pharmacy and medical students will get best benefit out of this article. Please cite this article in press as Abdul Kader Mohiuddin et al. Conventional and Alternative Measures for IBS Management. INTRODUCTION About 30% to 40% of adults claim to have frequent indigestion, and over 50 million visits are made annually to ambulatory care facilities for symptoms related to the digestive system. IBS is present in patients with symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits but no identifiable organic etiology. IBS has a prevalence of 1% to 20% worldwide, although up to 75% affected individuals never seek care. Diagnosing IBS can be challenging due to the nonspecific nature of symptoms, overlapping upper and lower abdominal symptoms, and the frequent presence of somatic and psychological comorbidities. Up to 80% of IBS patients identify food as a possible trigger for their symptoms, so they increasingly ask for dietary and behavioral counseling. Moderate-severe IBS is estimated to account for around 60% of all IBS cases and has been shown to impose a considerable burden on patients. It is estimated that IBS-C accounts for around 30% of IBS cases. The economic burden of IBS in the US is estimated at $28 billion annually, a portion of these costs may be related to unnecessary and high-frequency tests, although few studies have assessed the factors underlying frequent tests and procedures among patients with IBS. 32% of IBS-C patients suffer depression as their condition almost every day in the previous month. If main IBS symptom is constipation, linaclotide and lubiprostone are two drugs that are recommended by the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Sexual dysfunction is positively associated with perceived GI symptom severity and HRQoL.
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa) or Java ginger (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) or curcumin, a biologically active phytochemical or combinatiomn with fennel oil was found to be beneficial, improved patient QoL (due to myorelaxant effect towards the intestinal muscle, involves not only the cholinergic receptors, but also L type Calcium channels) but not statistically significant in IBS symptoms (compared with placebo) [50,[71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80]. Enzymes comprise the endocannabinoid system in intestinal pain and motility in IBS is also claimed [81] but no significant difference found with dronabinol/nabilone (synthetic compounds containing cannabinoids found in the marijuana plant) [82][83][84][85][86]. Aloe Vera found to be improved QoL with insignificant/no severity symptom reduction in several studies [87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94] and studies show its carcinogenic potential in the colon [90,[95][96][97][98], nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity [95,[99][100][101][102][103][104] which surely demands very limited use unless necessary. Zingier officinale also showed limited potential in symptom management [105][106][107][108]. Mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium improved QoL in men but not in women [109]. ...
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Full-text available
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or irritable bowel disease (IBD), is also known as spastic colitis, mucus colitis, and nervous colon. It is a chronic, or long-term, condition, but symptoms tend to change over the years. It's not uncommon for people with IBS to have episodes of both constipation and diarrhea. Symptoms such as bloating and gas typically go away after a bowel movement. There is no cure for IBS. Treatment is aimed at symptom relief. Certain foods as well as stress and anxiety can be triggers for IBS symptoms for many people. Medications are available to ease the symptoms of IBS, but some patients feel better trying natural remedies instead of (or in addition to) conventional drugs.