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Education and employment, born between 1960 and 1989.

Education and employment, born between 1960 and 1989.

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This paper empirically evaluates the impact of internal migration on empowerment of women in urban areas. Based on data from a nationally representative household survey, we find that migration exerts its positive impact both through improvements in educational attainment and labor market outcomes in urban settings. Migration contributes positively...

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Context 1
... Especially, there is a higher probability of better-educated migrants to find themselves in low-paid occupations during the initial years of their migration. Table 3 shows the cross tabulation of education and occu- pation as follows: ...
Context 2
... results indicate the presence of occupational downgrading especially for migrant men. The better-educated part of the more recent migrants (those who arrived between 2009 and 2013) are under-represented in high paid occupations such as skilled non-manual jobs compared to those migrants who arrived before 2004 (Table 3). This observation can partly be accounted by the difficulties in accessing to the appropriate networks necessary for best- matched jobs. ...
Context 3
... same analysis presented in Table 3 above depicts a different picture for women. Although college-educated most recent migrant women (who arrived between 2009 and 2013) have a smaller share in better-paid jobs than the migrant women who arrived before 2004, the reason seems to be associated more with being unemployed or out of the labor force at the earlier stage of migration rather than downgrading as is observed for men. ...

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