Figure 1 - uploaded by Bo Ae Chun
Content may be subject to copyright.
Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve and review cycle. 

Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve and review cycle. 

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recently, flipped learning has been attracting as an alternative teaching and learning method for university education. The purpose of this study is to propose flipped learning as an effective review method overcoming forgetting curve. This study is also aimed to provide empirical evidence for the effect of flipped learning in terms of both self-ef...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... have shown that if you memorize repeatedly within one hour, you will remember for one day, if you memorize one day later, you will remember for a week [3]. Figure 1 illustrates the effect of the review. When many forgetfulness occurs, the memory rate increases. The time when forgetfulness occurs is immediately after class, on the evening of the class, the next day, week, month, and so on [4,5]. Thus, it is suggested that four or five times review on what you have learned: right after the lesson, the evening, one week later, and one month later. These repeated reviews help learners keep high rate of retention [5]. Recently, flipped learning has been attracting as an alternative teaching and learning method for university education [6,7]. The purpose of this study is to propose flipped learning as an effective review method overcoming forgetting curve. This study is also aimed to provide empirical evidence for the effect of flipped learning in terms of both self-efficacy and academic performance. Three research questions guided the study: 1) Is there a difference in self-efficacy between traditional lecture style classroom and flipped classroom? ; 2) Is there a difference in academic performance between traditional and flipped classroom? ; 3) If so, what is the main factor of the ...
Context 2
... have shown that if you memorize repeatedly within one hour, you will remember for one day, if you memorize one day later, you will remember for a week [3]. Figure 1 illustrates the effect of the review. When many forgetfulness occurs, the memory rate increases. The time when forgetfulness occurs is immediately after class, on the evening of the class, the next day, week, month, and so on [4,5]. Thus, it is suggested that four or five times review on what you have learned: right after the lesson, the evening, one week later, and one month later. These repeated reviews help learners keep high rate of retention [5]. Recently, flipped learning has been attracting as an alternative teaching and learning method for university education [6,7]. The purpose of this study is to propose flipped learning as an effective review method overcoming forgetting curve. This study is also aimed to provide empirical evidence for the effect of flipped learning in terms of both self-efficacy and academic performance. Three research questions guided the study: 1) Is there a difference in self-efficacy between traditional lecture style classroom and flipped classroom? ; 2) Is there a difference in academic performance between traditional and flipped classroom? ; 3) If so, what is the main factor of the ...
Context 3
... have shown that if you memorize repeatedly within one hour, you will remember for one day, if you memorize one day later, you will remember for a week [3]. Figure 1 illustrates the effect of the review. When many forgetfulness occurs, the memory rate increases. ...

Similar publications

Conference Paper
Full-text available
This contribution is about teaching strategies in blended learning environments and its effects on students’ selfdirection. Literature shows a correlation between teachers’ teaching approaches, learning environments and students’ engagement in their learning activities. Indeed, student-centered teaching approaches encourage students’ active and dee...

Citations

... Moreover, learning performance was higher in FC than other learning settings. Chun and Heo (2018) investigated the effectiveness of FC in terms of both self-efficacy and academic performance. In their research study, they found a significant association between the use of the FC and improvements in self-confidence. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global research studies on distance education in foreign language learning focus primarily on secondary schools or higher education. The paper examines primary school foreign language teachers’ (n=119) perceptions of distance teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to face-to-face education. The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality, achieved learning outcomes, advantages and obstacles faced by FL teachers in remote teaching. Based on the e-questionnaire, our study indicated that distance FL teaching was more challenging and stressful than classroom teaching because primary school students were not responsive to technology and needed parental guidance. Primary school students rely on cognitive and socio-emotional support from the FL teacher.
... These tools often integrate several cognitive learning strategies within an assessment, to enhance learning, as opposed to just measuring it (Shaw, MacIsaac, & Singleton-Jackson, 2019). Recently, flipped learning has been attracting as an alternative teaching and learning method for university education (Chun, & Heo, 2018). According to Umek, L., Aristovnik, A., Tomaževic, N., & Keržic, D. (2015) the use of e-learning techniques in higher education is becoming ever more frequent, and in some institutions, e-learning has completely replaced the traditional teaching methods, while in others it supplements classical courses. ...
... The impact of online learning on academic performance Online learning in university education is thought to be one of the important variables to increase academic performance in university studies. Chun, & Heo (2018) pointed out that the flipped learning is an effective method in terms of both self-efficacy and academic performance, and Halabi, Essop, Carmichael, & Steyn (2014) provide empirical evidence to show that students who spent more time online significantly improved their course mark. Students felt satisfied with their online learning and their academic performance was correlated with their usage of the online content materials (Kuo, Luo, & Brielmaier, 2016); meanwhile, indicated that students' computer or internet self-efficacy and motivation for learning exerted a direct, positive effect on their online discussion score and course satisfaction. ...
... Therefore, based on ANOVA outputs, H # 1: Academic performance is a function of online learning, is supported. The result was consistent with some previously reported works, who argued that academic performance is a function of online learning scores (Chun, & Heo, 2018;Halabi, Essop, Carmichael, & Steyn, 2014;Kuo, Luo, & Brielmaier, 2016;Rajabalee, Santally, & Rennie, 2020;Shaw, MacIsaac, & Singleton-Jackson, 2019;Akhter, & Mahmood, 2018;Foung, & Chen, 2019;Lu et al., 2018;Strang, 2017;Alkis, & Temizel, 2018;Sharp, & Sharp, 2017;Han, & Ellis, 2020). As a conclusion, different levels of online learning influence the academic performance of students. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study aims to examine the implementation of an online learning approach to improving academic performance and students' satisfaction. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the impact of online learning on academic performance and students' satisfaction. The study found that the variance of online learning is different, revealing that different levels of online learning influence academic performance. It is also found that approximately 49.7% of the variance in academic performance can be explained or accounted for by online learning differences. It is confirmed that the variance of online learning is different, revealing that different levels of online learning influence students' satisfaction. The study also found that approximately 78% of the variance in students' satisfaction can be explained or accounted for by online learning differences.
... 7 By repeating the previous content, students are able to learn mathematics much faster. According to Ebbinghaus's oblivion curve ( [27]), there is a strong correlation between memory and time. Usually, forgetting in the beginning of process happens very quickly, and only by repeating a topic or activity we consolidate knowledge for a longer period of time. ...
... By repeating and reviewing previous formulas, theorems, lessons, and information, students are able to understand mathematics much more quickly. According to Ebbinghaus's oblivion curve (Chun & Heo, 2018), there is a strong correlation between memory and time ( Figure 04). Usually, forgetting in the initial https: //doi.org/10.15405/epiceepsy.20111.11 ...
... Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve and review cycle(Chun & Heo, 2018) ...
... Recently, the FLP has attracted the attention of teachers in higher education as an alternative method compared to traditional teaching methods face-to-face (Ahmed, 2016;Alamry, 2017;Chun &Heo, 2018 andHan, 2015) as a practical stage for the replacement of TCA with SCA in conjunction with applications of technology use (Alamry, 2017;Qeshtah, 2016 andSharir, 2017). In higher education, the role of the university is to develop society to produce knowledge through creating a suitable environment for teachers (Elrayies, 2016). ...
... Recently, the FLP has attracted the attention of teachers in higher education as an alternative method compared to traditional teaching methods face-to-face (Ahmed, 2016;Alamry, 2017;Chun &Heo, 2018 andHan, 2015) as a practical stage for the replacement of TCA with SCA in conjunction with applications of technology use (Alamry, 2017;Qeshtah, 2016 andSharir, 2017). In higher education, the role of the university is to develop society to produce knowledge through creating a suitable environment for teachers (Elrayies, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to examine the findings of the literature review in relation to the flipped learning paradigm (FLP) in the field of Second language acquisition (SLA). In order to conduct the study, a total of 31 articles were analyzed. The study conducted a systematic review of the influences of the FLP on the teaching practices of (SLA). Numerous online databases were searched to identify relevant articles published between 2014 and 2020. The study illustrated that FLP can empower students to participate more actively in their learning activities by giving students more freedom to construct their knowledge. Moreover, active learning activities in the class within the model was positively affect the classroom engagement levels of the students. This may be due to the students performing the activities in class with the guidance of the teacher and the teacher giving immediate feedback. The study also showed the challenges associated with FLP that may guide teachers and students in utilizing FLP in language acquisition. Although academic studies into the effectiveness of FLP for language learning have been largely confined to English as a second language (ESL), however, the findings of the study are likely transferable to other languages, in particular, the learning of Arabic as a second language (ASL). Keywords: flipped learning paradigm, second language acquisition, technology
... Meanwhile, other studies have discussed the effects of this methodology on different psychological constructs. For instance, there are some positive findings with regard to the association between the use of the flipped classroom and improvements in self-confidence (Chun & Heo, 2018), self-efficacy (Ibrahim, 2014;Mohammed, 2017;Chou, 2018), motivation (Xin-Yue, 2016Díaz-Garrido, Martín-Peña & Sánchez-López, 2017;Alsancak & Özdemir, 2018) and self-regulation (Lai & Hwang, 2016;Moos & Bonde, 2016;Sedraz et al., 2018). However, other studies have found no statistically significant relationship between the methodology and improvements in self-efficacy, self-regulation and motivation (Ferriz et al, 2017;Chun & Heo, 2018). ...
... For instance, there are some positive findings with regard to the association between the use of the flipped classroom and improvements in self-confidence (Chun & Heo, 2018), self-efficacy (Ibrahim, 2014;Mohammed, 2017;Chou, 2018), motivation (Xin-Yue, 2016Díaz-Garrido, Martín-Peña & Sánchez-López, 2017;Alsancak & Özdemir, 2018) and self-regulation (Lai & Hwang, 2016;Moos & Bonde, 2016;Sedraz et al., 2018). However, other studies have found no statistically significant relationship between the methodology and improvements in self-efficacy, self-regulation and motivation (Ferriz et al, 2017;Chun & Heo, 2018). ...
... The results obtained show that students who took part in the flipped classroom intervention (experimental group) did not did not display greater increases or decreases in any of the self-efficacy dimensions than the students who took part in an intervention using other types of methodologies (control group). This finding is in keeping with other research that did not support flipped classroom methodology as more effective than other methodologies in order to improve different psychological constructs (Ferriz et al, 2017;Chun & Heo, 2018) Unless future studies show otherwise, this finding proves that while the flipped classroom could be a suitable methodology for primary school, other methodologies can lead to similar results. In view of this result, teachers can choose the most suitable method for each educational situation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flipped classroom is an educational methodology whereby students complete the most theoretical part of a lesson at home, usually by viewing educational videos or using other similar tools. This allows them to dedicate more class time to developing higher order thinking skills via the completion of practical tasks. Since its introduction in the classroom few years ago, the number of primary education teachers using the method has increased steadily, but teachers sometimes lack reliable data on its effectiveness. The objective of this research was to address this by analysing how the methodology affects primary education students' self-concept. To this end, data were collected on 822 students (Age = 10.84; SD = .873), who were divided into a control group (437 students) and an experimental group (385 students). The experimental group underwent a 7-month flipped classroom intervention. Both groups completed the AF-5 scale before and after the intervention. The results suggest, firstly, that the flipped classroom methodology neither significantly improved nor significantly worsened any of the dimensions of self-concept more than the group that did not apply this methodology. Meanwhile, however, both groups did show improvements in the social, emotional and family dimensions of their self-concept. The paper concludes with a discussion of these outcomes and suggestions for future research topics.
... The short-term memory The teacher issued learning task cycle is roughly divided into 5min, 30min, and 12h; and the long-term memory cycle is roughly divided into 1Day, 2Day, 4Day, 7Day, 15Day. Therefore, according to the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve and the law of memory cycle, we formulated a course learning plan against the forgetting rules, and published corresponding course tests in stages on the Edmodo platform [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. As shown in Table 1, a course plan of blended learning mode based on the Edmodo platform was formulated, where x represents the total learning days, 44 days; Tx represents new knowledge learnt on the day, and MReview represents the contents that need to be reviewed on the day. ...
... In the first 15 days, the subjects both learnt new knowledge Tx and reviewed the learnt knowledge set MReview. After the 16th day, no new knowledge was learnt and only the old knowledge was reviewed (that is, when x∈ [16,44], Tx = 0); from the 30th day until the 44th day, the learning content learnt in the first 15 days was reviewed. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to overcome the defects of traditional English learning mode, including poor real-time communication ability, heavy reliance on individual self-discipline, and undesirable learning effect. Drawing on the theories of English learning motivation, the author analyzed the relationship between learning motiva-tion and learning behavior in light of the Edmodo-based blended English learning mode, and put forward the English learning persistence rate formula, thus reveal-ing the correlations between learning cost, objective external learning environ-ment, learning motivation, and learning persistent rate. In addition, the English courses were made more pertinent according to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The course test data were fitted and weighted, outputting intuitive curves on learning effect. The research results show that the Edmodo-based blended Eng-lish learning mode has a significant learning effect, and a guiding significance for English learning and English teaching reform.
... The current study examined previous research investigating the efficacy of flipped classrooms in higher education (Al-Zahrani, 2015;Butt, 2014;Chun and Heo, 2018;El-Banna et al., 2017;Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette, 2014;Pellas, 2018;Thai et al., 2017;Tune et al., 2013). The majority of these studies indicated positive results, with learners in flipped classrooms found to be more engaged, excited and satisfied (Butt, 2014;Davies et al., 2013;Pellas, 2018), as well as better prepared prior to traditional classroom activities (Tune et al., 2013), and attaining higher scores in examinations (Al-Zahrani, 2015;Chun and Heo, 2018;El-Banna et al., 2017;Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette, 2014;Pellas, 2018;Thai et al., 2017;Tune et al., 2013). ...
... The current study examined previous research investigating the efficacy of flipped classrooms in higher education (Al-Zahrani, 2015;Butt, 2014;Chun and Heo, 2018;El-Banna et al., 2017;Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette, 2014;Pellas, 2018;Thai et al., 2017;Tune et al., 2013). The majority of these studies indicated positive results, with learners in flipped classrooms found to be more engaged, excited and satisfied (Butt, 2014;Davies et al., 2013;Pellas, 2018), as well as better prepared prior to traditional classroom activities (Tune et al., 2013), and attaining higher scores in examinations (Al-Zahrani, 2015;Chun and Heo, 2018;El-Banna et al., 2017;Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette, 2014;Pellas, 2018;Thai et al., 2017;Tune et al., 2013). ...
... The findings suggest that learning in a flipped classroom increases students' academic performance and level of satisfaction, compared with the traditional classroom environment. Despite the limitations regarding the small sample size of undergraduate male students and the nature of the course selected, the findings of this study are consistent with those of other studies that have investigated the efficacy of the flipped approach for enhancing student engagement and increasing understanding of key concepts (Al-Zahrani, 2015;Bergmann and Sams, 2012;Butt, 2014;Chun and Heo, 2018;Davies et al., 2013;El-Banna et al., 2017;Findlay-Thompson and Mombourquette, 2014;McLaughlin et al., 2013;Pellas, 2018;Thai et al., 2017;Tune et al., 2013). Previous studies that investigated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom -such as those of Al-Zahrani (2015) and Wagner et al. (2013) -found that the integration of technology in learning increased student outcomes in terms of enhancing their memory skills, creativity and critical thinking skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a flipped classroom for students' academic performance and satisfaction. A mixed-methods research design was used to compare the two approaches of a traditional lecture and flipped classroom. Data were gathered via an achievement test, survey questionnaire and interviews, and then analysed. The results indicated a statistically significant difference in students' academic performance for the flipped classroom group. Additionally, almost all students had a high level of satisfaction in the flipped classroom and generally enjoyed learning in the flipped classroom environment. Online materials, peer discussions and the instructor's role were fundamental elements that produced high-quality learning and active learners. However, few students reported some issues that considered as the main obstacles encountered by some students, which were the week computer skills and time-consuming tasks. This study's implications and recommendations for further research are discussed.
Chapter
In 2018 the Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT), a federally funded multi-campus tertiary institution across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) proceeded to standardize courses across its 16 campuses. The main goal was to ensure that the credentials earned across the campuses were consistent in terms of the skills and abilities demonstrated by graduates in each location. The General Studies Program, a sub-division of the General Academic Requirements Division, took the opportunity to incorporate technology tools, educational best practices, and innovative solutions to develop a simulated online delivery model, cross-listing courses in Blackboard Learn and introducing a hybrid flipped class delivery approach. To determine the feasibility of the model a three-stage pilot was run in which the first stage was to cross-list all General Studies courses and redevelop materials to suit the hybrid online delivery strategy. The effectiveness of the model was measured using two metrics, the overall mean score in representative courses and the difference between coursework and final exam grades in courses and campuses. The two metrics were compared using data from the academic year 2018 as compared to the semester in the academic year 2017 before the simulated online model. Comparison of student achievement data shows that the overall mean scores for targeted courses did increase. In courses where the overall mean did not increase, there was a narrowing of the discrepancy between final exam and coursework scores which is an important KPI in the institution. This innovative delivery system paved the way to a move toward a hybrid model fully incorporating blended learning one year in advance of the COVID-19 pandemic. The advanced preparation and experience of the General Studies Programs contributed to the overall preparedness of HCT to successfully transition to a fully online delivery model when the Ministry of Education decided to move all education delivery online in 2020.