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ERIC-PCR profile of E. coli strain untreated and treated with different aerial parts extract concentrations. A: aqueous aerial parts extract, B: ethanolic aerial parts extract of E. foeminea at different time intervals. Lanes C1, C2 and C3 are untreated (negative controls); lanes 1, 4 and 7 treated with 3.5 mg/ml; Lanes 2, 5 and 8 treated with 1.75 mg/ml; Lanes 3, 6 and 9 treated with 0.875 mg/ml of plant extract.

ERIC-PCR profile of E. coli strain untreated and treated with different aerial parts extract concentrations. A: aqueous aerial parts extract, B: ethanolic aerial parts extract of E. foeminea at different time intervals. Lanes C1, C2 and C3 are untreated (negative controls); lanes 1, 4 and 7 treated with 3.5 mg/ml; Lanes 2, 5 and 8 treated with 1.75 mg/ml; Lanes 3, 6 and 9 treated with 0.875 mg/ml of plant extract.

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This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the genotoxic effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Ephedra foeminea (E. foeminea) plant on Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922). Antimicrobial activity was investigated using microbroth dilution method, while the genotoxic effect was determined using entero...

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... effect of aqueous aerial parts extract on genome of E. coli strain was evaluated by using ERIC-PCR. ERIC-PCR profile showed that a band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL and 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1A, lanes 1 and 2) of aqueous aerial parts extract for 2h. Besides, this band disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/ml of the same extract ( Figure 1A, lane 3), in comparison with the same band appeared in un-treated control. ...
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... profile showed that a band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL and 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1A, lanes 1 and 2) of aqueous aerial parts extract for 2h. Besides, this band disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/ml of the same extract ( Figure 1A, lane 3), in comparison with the same band appeared in un-treated control. Moreover, all bands disappeared after 6h in the E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract ( Figure 1A, lane 4). ...
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... this band disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/ml of the same extract ( Figure 1A, lane 3), in comparison with the same band appeared in un-treated control. Moreover, all bands disappeared after 6h in the E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract ( Figure 1A, lane 4). The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1A, lane 5) disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/mL of the same extract for 6h ( Figure 1A, lane 6), in comparison with the same band appeared in the un-treated control. ...
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... all bands disappeared after 6h in the E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract ( Figure 1A, lane 4). The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1A, lane 5) disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/mL of the same extract for 6h ( Figure 1A, lane 6), in comparison with the same band appeared in the un-treated control. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/ml, 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h ( Figure 1A, lanes 7,8 and 9). ...
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... all bands disappeared after 6h in the E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract ( Figure 1A, lane 4). The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1A, lane 5) disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/mL of the same extract for 6h ( Figure 1A, lane 6), in comparison with the same band appeared in the un-treated control. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/ml, 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h ( Figure 1A, lanes 7,8 and 9). ...
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... band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1A, lane 5) disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 0.875 mg/mL of the same extract for 6h ( Figure 1A, lane 6), in comparison with the same band appeared in the un-treated control. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/ml, 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h ( Figure 1A, lanes 7,8 and 9). Moreover, the band with an amplicon length of about 300-bp was less intense ( Figure 1A, lanes 7, 8 and 9) in comparison with the same band appeared in un-treated control. ...
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... band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/ml, 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h ( Figure 1A, lanes 7,8 and 9). Moreover, the band with an amplicon length of about 300-bp was less intense ( Figure 1A, lanes 7, 8 and 9) in comparison with the same band appeared in un-treated control. It was observed that in lane number four most bands disappeared when treated with aqueous aerial parts extract of E. foeminea of 3.5 mg/mL concentration. ...
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... was observed that in lane number four most bands disappeared when treated with aqueous aerial parts extract of E. foeminea of 3.5 mg/mL concentration. ERIC-PCR profiles for E. coli strain untreated and treated with different concentrations of aqueous aerial parts extract of E. foeminea at the different time intervals are shown in Figure 1A. ...
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... the ERIC-PCR profile of untreated control samples with the profile of the E. coli treated with ethanolic aerial parts extract showed decreasing of intensity or loss of some bands from the profile. ERIC-PCR profile showed that a band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 2 and 5) and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 3 and 6) of ethanolic aerial parts extract for 2h and 6h. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 7), and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 8 and 9) aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h. ...
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... the ERIC-PCR profile of untreated control samples with the profile of the E. coli treated with ethanolic aerial parts extract showed decreasing of intensity or loss of some bands from the profile. ERIC-PCR profile showed that a band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 2 and 5) and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 3 and 6) of ethanolic aerial parts extract for 2h and 6h. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 7), and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 8 and 9) aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h. ...
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... profile showed that a band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 2 and 5) and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 3 and 6) of ethanolic aerial parts extract for 2h and 6h. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 7), and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 8 and 9) aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h. In addition, the band with an amplicon length of about 300-bp was less intense ( Figure 1B, lanes 8 and 9) in comparison with the same band appeared in untreated control. ...
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... profile showed that a band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 2 and 5) and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 3 and 6) of ethanolic aerial parts extract for 2h and 6h. The band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 7), and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 8 and 9) aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h. In addition, the band with an amplicon length of about 300-bp was less intense ( Figure 1B, lanes 8 and 9) in comparison with the same band appeared in untreated control. ...
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... band with an amplicon length of about 800-bp was less intense in E. coli strain treated with 3.5 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 7), and disappeared in E. coli strain treated with 1.75 mg/mL and 0.875 mg/mL ( Figure 1B, lane 8 and 9) aqueous aerial parts extract for 24h. In addition, the band with an amplicon length of about 300-bp was less intense ( Figure 1B, lanes 8 and 9) in comparison with the same band appeared in untreated control. ERIC-PCR profiles for E. coli strain untreated and treated with different concentrations of ethanolic aerial parts extract of E. foeminea at the different time intervals are shown in Figure 1A. ...
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... addition, the band with an amplicon length of about 300-bp was less intense ( Figure 1B, lanes 8 and 9) in comparison with the same band appeared in untreated control. ERIC-PCR profiles for E. coli strain untreated and treated with different concentrations of ethanolic aerial parts extract of E. foeminea at the different time intervals are shown in Figure 1A. ...

Citations

... Ethanolic extract was prepared as described previously [21][22] with some modifications. Briefly, approximately 30 g of dried plant powder was mixed thoroughly using a magnetic stirrer in 150 ml of 80% ethanol. ...
... Aqueous extract was prepared as described previously [21,22] with some modifications. Briefly, approximately 30 g of dried plant powder was mixed thoroughly using a magnetic stirrer in 150-ml cold (room temperature) sterile distilled water. ...
... Reviewing the scientific literature showed that this study is the first of its kind that studied the genotoxicity of C. spinosa extract on prokaryotes using molecular fingerprinting based on ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques. Besides, many plants were previously examined to investigate their genotoxic potential using different techniques [21,22,28,[34][35][36][37][38][39]. In this study, RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR profiles showed many significant differences between the treated and untreated E. coli strain. ...
Article
Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the genotoxic effect of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and leaf of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) plant on Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 6538P, clinical isolate of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) ATCC 90028. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined using microbroth dilution method, while the genotoxic effect was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Results: The MIC values of both ethanolic and aqueous leaf and stem extracts of C. spinosa plant had a range 6.25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml. In addition, it was found that ethanolic extract more effective than aqueous extract. The genotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extract, showed changes in both Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR profiles of E. coli strain treated with extract compared to untreated (negative) control. These changes included an alteration in the intensity, absence or appearance of new amplified fragments. 49 Conclusions: Results of this study strongly show the genotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extract from C. spinosa plant on E. coli. The findings draw awareness to the possible toxic effect use of C. spinosa plant in traditional medicine and point out the capability of using C. spinosa to treat bacterial or fungal infections. More studies are needed to detect the exact ingredients of this plant as well as the mechanisms responsible for genotoxicity. Further in vivo genotoxicity studies are recommended to ensure and to evaluate the safety of using plants for therapeutic purposes. In addition, results of this study showed that molecular fingerprinting based on ERIC-PCR can be used to evaluate the genotoxic effect in the model bacterial species E. coli.
... Ethanolic extract was prepared as described previously [21][22] with some modifications. Briefly, approximately 30 g of dried plant powder was mixed thoroughly using a magnetic stirrer in 150 ml of 80% ethanol. ...
... Aqueous extract was prepared as described previously [21,22] with some modifications. Briefly, approximately 30 g of dried plant powder was mixed thoroughly using a magnetic stirrer in 150-ml cold (room temperature) sterile distilled water. ...
... Reviewing the scientific literature showed that this study is the first of its kind that studied the genotoxicity of C. spinosa extract on prokaryotes using molecular fingerprinting based on ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques. Besides, many plants were previously examined to investigate their genotoxic potential using different techniques [21,22,28,[34][35][36][37][38][39]. In this study, RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR profiles showed many significant differences between the treated and untreated E. coli strain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the genotoxic effect of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and leaf of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) plant on Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 6538P, clinical isolate of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) ATCC 90028. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined using microbroth dilution method, while the genotoxic effect was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Results: The MIC values of both ethanolic and aqueous leaf and stem extracts of C. spinosa plant had a range 6.25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml. In addition, it was found that ethanolic extract more effective than aqueous extract. The genotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extract, showed changes in both Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR profiles of E. coli strain treated with extract compared to untreated (negative) control. These changes included an alteration in the intensity, absence or appearance of new amplified fragments. Conclusions: Results of this study strongly show the genotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extract from C. spinosa plant on E. coli. The findings draw awareness to the possible toxic effect use of C. spinosa plant in traditional medicine and point out the capability of using C. spinosa to treat bacterial or fungal infections. More studies are needed to detect the exact ingredients of this plant as well as the mechanisms responsible for genotoxicity. Further in vivo genotoxicity studies are recommended to ensure and to evaluate the safety of using plants for therapeutic purposes. In addition, results of this study showed that molecular fingerprinting based on ERIC-PCR can be used to evaluate the genotoxic effect in the model bacterial species E. coli.