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During ATP synthesis, the ion motive force across a mitochondrial, bacterial, or thylakoid membrane drives the c-ring of FO ATP synthase to rotate. Top view of the c-ring (yellow) and stator a-subunit (green) of FO, showing equipotential surface cross-sections (curved lines) perpendicular to the electric field emanating from the half-channels (blue and red circles) in the a-subunit. Black arrows represent forces due to tangential field components (red arrows) acting on protonated (blue circles) and deprotonated (light circle) sites on the c-ring. The figure shows cross-sections of the resulting equipotential surfaces (black lines) and tangential electric field components (red arrows), superimposed on an idealized cross section of the c-ring (yellow) and a-subunit (green). The proton channel cross sections in the a-subunit are colored to depict the differences in potentials, with dark blue and red representing the channels coupled to high-and low-potential sides of the membrane, respectively. The protonated sites on the c-ring are shown as dark blue circles, while the light circle represents a deprotonated site. The black arrows represent tangential forces due to the field acting on protonated and deprotonated sites. Crucially, both can make positive contributions to the torque since opposite field directions are counterbalanced by opposite charges. Credit [90]. Image source: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074978.

During ATP synthesis, the ion motive force across a mitochondrial, bacterial, or thylakoid membrane drives the c-ring of FO ATP synthase to rotate. Top view of the c-ring (yellow) and stator a-subunit (green) of FO, showing equipotential surface cross-sections (curved lines) perpendicular to the electric field emanating from the half-channels (blue and red circles) in the a-subunit. Black arrows represent forces due to tangential field components (red arrows) acting on protonated (blue circles) and deprotonated (light circle) sites on the c-ring. The figure shows cross-sections of the resulting equipotential surfaces (black lines) and tangential electric field components (red arrows), superimposed on an idealized cross section of the c-ring (yellow) and a-subunit (green). The proton channel cross sections in the a-subunit are colored to depict the differences in potentials, with dark blue and red representing the channels coupled to high-and low-potential sides of the membrane, respectively. The protonated sites on the c-ring are shown as dark blue circles, while the light circle represents a deprotonated site. The black arrows represent tangential forces due to the field acting on protonated and deprotonated sites. Crucially, both can make positive contributions to the torque since opposite field directions are counterbalanced by opposite charges. Credit [90]. Image source: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074978.

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Normal water structures are maintained largely by interactions with biomacromolecular surfaces and weak electromagnetic fields, which enable extended networks for electron and proton conductivity. All standard chemistry is totally reliant on electrostatics and avoids all mention of electrodynamics and the consequent radiation field, which is suppor...

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... CDs reduce entropy and contribute to the regulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in cellular systems [2]. In this environment, "like" charges can attract resulting in the accumulation of negatively charged tissues observed in cell systems and establishing an environment that facilitates proton and electron transfer thermodynamics [8,3]. ...
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... The physicochemical properties of structured water include increased electrical conductivity and pH [13,31]. Water conductivity and pH increase with an increasing ratio of structured water to unstructured water due to an increase in delocalized, and quasi-free electrons and protons that form vortices in and around the hexagonal rings of water [32][33][34][35][36]. Structured water is also termed as biological water, bound water, activated water, energized water, coherent domain water, vitalized water, or hexagonal water. ...
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A greenhouse study was conducted to enhance drought tolerance in velvet bean plants (Mucuns pruriens) using structured irrigation water. The study combined magnetized seed treatments with watering plants with structured water treatments. A closed-loop, water system was custom-built to generate the structured irrigation water. The custom water generator utilized two energy fields (magnetic and ultra-violet radiation) to generate the structured water. The objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the effects of a magnetized seed treatment on velvet bean plants, 2) determine the effects of magnetized water treatments on velvet bean plants, 3) determine the effects of water treated with a hydroxylated water generator on velvet bean plants, 4) determine the effects of three soil moisture levels on velvet bean plants. The plant responses included: 1) foliage gas exchange rates 2) soil moisture, 3) cumulative water volume for each plant, 4) plant water use efficiency, and 5) oven-dry foliage biomass. The foliage gas exchange responses showed that the magnetized seed and structured water treatments disassociated the relationships between photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and internal carbon dioxide rates from soil moisture and leaf temperature. The optimal, combined magnetized seed and structured water treatments increased water savings from 32 to 52% over the unstructured water treatments, under the low soil moisture level. The maximum plant water use efficiency was 2.81, which occurred with a structured water treatment under the high soil moisture level. There was a 6.8 % decrease in oven-dry foliage biomass for the optimal magnetized seed and structured water treatment when compared with the control treatment. However, the tradeoff in reduced biomass was compensated with a 41% savings in water usage, 25% reduction in Pn, 34% reduction in stomatal conductance, and a 7% reduction in internal carbon dioxide under the low soil moisture level for the optimal magnetized seed and structured water treatment. The combined seed and water treatments fundamentally alter drought adaptation plant responses to water stress conditions which resulted in a significant reduction in irrigation water usage. The interactions between magnetized seed treatments and structured water treatments on plant stress physiology need to be further investigated to confirm these water conservation findings. Structured water generators should be evaluated for physicochemical water properties and stability of water in soil and plant matrices.
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... A noteworthy NMR study [40], where proton relaxation times T 1 (the spin-lattice relaxation time) and T 2 (the spin-spin relaxation time) were measured in distilled water, homeopathic remedy, spring water and water treated with electromagnetic fields, demonstrated evidence of the presence of supramolecular structures similar to liquid crystals, whose molecules are arranged in some order and whose state of matter is between that of a liquid and a crystalline solid. The authors suggest that their findings could be explained from the point of the hypothesis of CDs and EZ-water formation. ...
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Water vapor absorbs well in the infrared (IR) region of the spectra. On the other hand, it was recently demonstrated that IR radiation promotes formation of the so-called exclusion zones (EZ) at the interfaces between hydrophilic surfaces and water. EZ-water properties differ significantly from that of bulk water. It was studied for the first time whether treatment of water with humid air irradiated with IR-C band could change its physical-chemical properties, making it EZ-water-like. Humid air irradiated with IR was called coherent humidity (CoHu). Redox potential and surface tension decreased in deionized water and mineral water samples that were treated with CoHu, while dielectric constant increased in such water samples. After such treatment of carbonate or phosphate buffers, their buffer capacity against acidification and leaching significantly increased. No such changes were observed in water samples treated with non-irradiated humid air. Thus, after treatment of tested aqueous systems with humid air exposed to IR radiation, their properties change, making them more like EZ-water. The results suggest that IR irradiation of humid air converts it into a carrier of a certain physical signal that affects water properties.
... We have not touched upon the alternative opinion of a number of physicists -theorists on the structuring of water by the action of a "vacuum electromagnetic field" on it. According to Giuliano Preparata, Emilio Del Giudice and colleagues [87], liquid water is a two-fluid system, consisting of a coherent and incoherent phases. In the coherent phase, water molecules vibrate between two electronic configurations in phase with a resonating electromagnetic field (EMF) and, as a result, large stable coherent domains (CD) with a diameter of about 100 nm are formed in it at ordinary temperature and pressure. ...
... Not all authors agreed with the adequacy of the presented model [69; 83; 85]. An attempt to combine two different views on the structure and dynamics of water was made in [87]. Undoubtedly, the involvement of quantum electromagnetic dynamics in the study of Nature is a promising theoretical tool, however, in the application to the problem considered here, we do not find a place for it. ...
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A brief review of the history of the problem is intended to trace the progress in the development of scientific views on the structure of water. The discoveries in this area made in the first half of the last century are considered in comparison with modern data. It is shown that due to the de facto ban on the study of the structure of water in 1971, work in this direction was frozen for a long time. The paradox is that many forgotten truths have been independently "rediscovered" in our time, which speaks of their authenticity. On the basis of scientific literature and their own research, the authors come to the conclusion that water under room conditions is a microdispersed system, one phase of which is represented by continuous water, and the other-by polywater, discovered in the 70s of the last century. From the standpoint of world academic science, water at room temperature and humidity is still an association of Н2О molecules, molecular chains and nanometer-sized clusters dynamically changing their structure in femtosecond time [1, 2]. By introducing certain assumptions, the authors of such views were able to explain certain anomalous properties of water and ice with the help of molecular modeling. At the same time, information about the presence of other phases of water coexisting with the continuum one was not taken into account. Meanwhile, more than 70 years ago (see review [3]), convincing experimental facts were obtained that indicate that water near hydrophilic surfaces forms a new phase-a near-surface layer, which is very different in terms of the complex of physical properties from bulk water. The thickness of this layer is up to hundreds of microns. Direct evidence of the existence of a new water phase was presented, including in terms of refractive index, diffraction of X-ray and neutron radiation, viscosity, adhesion, and the presence of long-range order in structural ordering. This information has been repeatedly confirmed by many researchers using different techniques of physical experiments. Experimental evidence was obtained for the fact that the structure of water formed at hydrophilic surfaces corresponds to the structure of ice and represents layers of hexagonal structures superimposed on each other in one, two, three or four layers [4-7]. It has been shown that thin (h <150 µm) layers of water located between glass surfaces have shape elasticity [8]. Films with a thickness of 0.35 μm had the rigidity of metallic lead [9]. The viscosity of water in the gap between glass plates separated by 1 μm was many times higher than the viscosity of water in the volume [10], and at a distance between the plates of 2.5 μm it was 10 times higher [11]. The data on the existence of a new phase of water under room conditions were not accepted by representatives of "classical science". Suffice it to recall the opening and closing of Preprints (www.preprints.org) | NOT PEER-REVIEWED |
... We have not touched upon the alternative opinion of a number of physicists -theorists on the structuring of water by the action of a "vacuum electromagnetic field" on it. According to Giuliano Preparata, Emilio Del Giudice and colleagues [87], liquid water is a two-fluid system, consisting of a coherent and incoherent phases. In the coherent phase, water molecules vibrate between two electronic configurations in phase with a resonating electromagnetic field (EMF) and, as a result, large stable coherent domains (CD) with a diameter of about 100 nm are formed in it at ordinary temperature and pressure. ...
... Not all authors agreed with the adequacy of the presented model [69; 83; 85]. An attempt to combine two different views on the structure and dynamics of water was made in [87]. Undoubtedly, the involvement of quantum electromagnetic dynamics in the study of Nature is a promising theoretical tool, however, in the application to the problem considered here, we do not find a place for it. ...
Preprint
A brief review of the history of the problem is intended to trace the progress in the development of scientific views on the structure of water. The discoveries in this area made in the first half of the last century are considered in comparison with modern data. It is shown that due to the de facto ban on the study of the structure of water in 1971, work in this direction was frozen for a long time. The paradox is that many forgotten truths have been independently "rediscovered" in our time, which speaks of their authenticity. On the basis of scientific literature and their own research, the authors come to the conclusion that water under room conditions is a microdispersed system, one phase of which is represented by continuous water, and the other - by polywater, discovered in the 70s of the last century.
... Collagen is the most abundant protein in the organism, and is known to form liquid crystalline mesophases (liquid crystals are states or phases of matter in between solid crystals and liquids, hence the term, mesophases). It is the main protein in the extracellular matrix and connective tissues (connective-collagen membrane system happens to be composed almost entirely of hydrophilic material, which are defined by the density of electrons on their surfaces, and the protons formed when (a) ultraviolet to infrared light energy, (b) water, and (c) hollow hydrophilic surfaces come together in space and time and may thus account for the liquid crystallinity of living organisms as a whole, facilitating short and long range collective coherent correlation throughout the body [70]). 7 Electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT) denote the electron/proton flow process with an electrolyte, which is ionically conducting and which can function as an electron/proton sink or source via a redox process. ...