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Drawing of the 2.4 GHz band (2.40-2.48) shared with Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens. To minimize the interference from these devices, Bluetooth uses the frequency-hoping spread spectrum technology (up to 1600 rotations per second) which parcel out the data being sent and transmitted. Wi-Fi 802.11 a and 802.11 g technologies use the radio spectrum bandwidth 20 MHz. Most of Europe permits 13 channels for the 2.4 GHz band in contrast to the 11 channels permitted in the United States. 

Drawing of the 2.4 GHz band (2.40-2.48) shared with Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens. To minimize the interference from these devices, Bluetooth uses the frequency-hoping spread spectrum technology (up to 1600 rotations per second) which parcel out the data being sent and transmitted. Wi-Fi 802.11 a and 802.11 g technologies use the radio spectrum bandwidth 20 MHz. Most of Europe permits 13 channels for the 2.4 GHz band in contrast to the 11 channels permitted in the United States. 

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Abstract The model biological organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis have been utilized to assess effects on apoptotic cell death of follicles during oogenesis and reproductive capacity (fecundity) decline. A total of 280 different experiments were performed using newly emerged flies exposed for short time daily for 3-7 d to vario...

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... tooth is named after a Scandinavian king (Harald Blåtand) who united countries. This technology developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/s (Figure 2). The 2.4 GHz ISM band is available and unlicensed in most countries. Bluetooth technology's adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) capability was designed to reduce interference between wireless technologies sharing the 2.4 GHz spectrum. AFH works within the spectrum to take advantage of the available frequency. This is done by a technology detecting other devices in the spectrum and avoiding the frequencies they are using. This adaptive hopping among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals gives a high degree of interference immunity and also allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum. Bluetooth frequencies are shared by some cordless phone and Wi-Fi devices as well as microwave ovens (Figure 2). Class 1 Bluetooth devices have an effective range of 100 m. Class 2 devices have an effective range of 33 feet. Class 3 Bluetooth devices have an effective range of 3 feet. Its radio broadcast power level is very low (2.5 mW, compared to the 250 mW power of an ordinary mobile phone operating under the TDMA ...
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... tooth is named after a Scandinavian king (Harald Blåtand) who united countries. This technology developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/s (Figure 2). The 2.4 GHz ISM band is available and unlicensed in most countries. Bluetooth technology's adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) capability was designed to reduce interference between wireless technologies sharing the 2.4 GHz spectrum. AFH works within the spectrum to take advantage of the available frequency. This is done by a technology detecting other devices in the spectrum and avoiding the frequencies they are using. This adaptive hopping among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals gives a high degree of interference immunity and also allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum. Bluetooth frequencies are shared by some cordless phone and Wi-Fi devices as well as microwave ovens (Figure 2). Class 1 Bluetooth devices have an effective range of 100 m. Class 2 devices have an effective range of 33 feet. Class 3 Bluetooth devices have an effective range of 3 feet. Its radio broadcast power level is very low (2.5 mW, compared to the 250 mW power of an ordinary mobile phone operating under the TDMA ...
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... is a brand used by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe any ''wireless local area network'' (WLAN) products that are based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications. The initials stand for ''Wireless Fidelity'' and the name was coined by Interbrand Corporation. Wi-Fi generally operates in 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands, but the most commonly used spectrum, unlicensed by international agreement, is near 2.4 GHz. Microwave ovens, cordless telephones and Bluetooth also operate at this spectrum, so Wi-Fi technology uses wide signaling methods to overlap interference from these elec- tronic devices. 802.11 b was based on direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) with a channel width of 22 MHz and 802.11 g was based on the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technology with channels' bandwidth at 20 MHz (Figure ...
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... GENERATOR OPERATING AT 900 MHz. Flies were exposed in the near field of the antenna connected to a plain CW signal generator for 30 min daily at an average E-field intensity of 20 V/m for the first 3-5 d of their adult lives. Apoptosis of ovarian egg-chambers and reproductive capacity were tested as described under Materials and Methods. Ovarian cell death increase of apoptotic follicles was found to be 2.2-fold, statistically significant (p ¼ 0.002) using three different non parametric statistical analyses (Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnof and Kruskal- Wallis) compared to the fourfold increase following parallel experiment with mobile phone (see case number 19, 20 in Table 1, Figure 19). No clear effects on reproductive capacity were found, although possibly a marginal increase in fecund- ity was detected (p ¼ 0.048) instead of the so far decrease caused by the other EMF sources (case number 20 in Table 2 and Figure 22). EXPOSING MOVING (AWAKE) VS. STILL (ANESTHETIZED) FLIES. To answer the question whether the movement (flying) of the insects within their home vials during exposure might affect radiation absorbance a number of experiments took place under standard exposure conditions mentioned above, by first putting the flies under light anesthesia with ether. The maximum duration of the exposure taking place outside the vials so that no glass or plastic intervened between the EMF source and the flies, was 20 min before the flies starting to get awake. In all control/sham- exposed flies the percentage of apoptotic follicles was doubled compared to the non-anesthetized flies (data not shown). Also doubled was the percentage of the exposed flies compared to the values without anesthesia. Therefore, this handling acted as a stress factor per se for the flies and did not provoke a stronger EMF impact; it just raised the ''noise'', that is, the physiological checkpoint-dependent apoptosis of the egg chambers during ...
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... above experiments were repeated for both 6 min and 12 min exposure ( Figure 23A). Although distance from the emitting source seems to play an important role in the severity of the biological impact caused by both systems, duration seemed not to be very important in this biological ...
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... objective of this work was to demonstrate that two species of the dipteran genus Drosophilidae, namely the well- known Drosophila melanogaster and the less known Drosophila virilis (larger in size), are suitable to be used as model systems in studies of the effects from ordinary and weak EMF signals originating from the widespread nowadays wireless technology. These systems are easy to use, versatile and simple, provided that very strict culturing and exposure conditions are maintained; stable fly-room or incubator devoid of background EMF sources (ELF or RF/MW), a Figure 22. Bar graphs depicting the effects on the fecundity of flies after exposure to the various EMF sources. Almost every kind of radiation had an impact in the reproductive capacity of Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and Drosophila virilis (Dv) while the maximum reduction was observed after exposure to mobile phone and the DECT handset. Refer to Table 2 for details concerning exposure conditions and source combinations. stereoscope equipped with fiber optics illumination to min- imize thermal shock during handling and dissecting the flies. Last but not least a high-quality fluorescence microscope is required to visualize the end results from the acridine orange and the TUNEL assay. It is the only so far used biological system for EMF studies that allows the effects to be viewed with naked eye, that is, counting the pupae on the walls of the fly culture vial. Besides our long experience with this system ( Chavdoula et al., 2010;reviewed in Panagopoulos & Margaritis, 2008), a limited number of EMF studies exists, starting 30 years ago mainly on the effects of ELF magnetic fields on oviposition ( Ramirez et al., 1983) a research which has been followed by a small number of other reports ( Graham et al., 2000;Gonet et al., 2009;Mirabolghasemi & Azarnia, ...
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... GSM 900 and 1800 MHz signals led to reduction in fecundity for D. virilis; a 30% decrease in GSM 900 and a 20% decrease in GSM 1800, both with 6 min or 12 min daily exposure for 7 d (Figure 23). The 30% reduction in fecundity is the maximum effect observed throughout this study using various EMF sources (Table 2). Distance/E-field intensity- dependent experiments were performed for both 6 min and 12 min daily exposure ( Figure 23). The exposure groups were placed at 0 (E1), 10 (E2) and 20 cm (E3) away from the RF source where the electrical field intensities were 22, 2 and 0.4 V/m, respectively. E1 group had the largest biological impact with 30% reduction in fecundity, a number that decreases linearly with the increase of the mobile phone-flies distance (group E2 ¼ 20% and group E3 ¼ 14%) ( Figure 23, Table 2). We also found a 17% and a 4% decrease in the E2 and E3 groups, respectively, exposed to GSM 1800 ...
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... GSM 900 and 1800 MHz signals led to reduction in fecundity for D. virilis; a 30% decrease in GSM 900 and a 20% decrease in GSM 1800, both with 6 min or 12 min daily exposure for 7 d (Figure 23). The 30% reduction in fecundity is the maximum effect observed throughout this study using various EMF sources (Table 2). Distance/E-field intensity- dependent experiments were performed for both 6 min and 12 min daily exposure ( Figure 23). The exposure groups were placed at 0 (E1), 10 (E2) and 20 cm (E3) away from the RF source where the electrical field intensities were 22, 2 and 0.4 V/m, respectively. E1 group had the largest biological impact with 30% reduction in fecundity, a number that decreases linearly with the increase of the mobile phone-flies distance (group E2 ¼ 20% and group E3 ¼ 14%) ( Figure 23, Table 2). We also found a 17% and a 4% decrease in the E2 and E3 groups, respectively, exposed to GSM 1800 ...
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... GSM 900 and 1800 MHz signals led to reduction in fecundity for D. virilis; a 30% decrease in GSM 900 and a 20% decrease in GSM 1800, both with 6 min or 12 min daily exposure for 7 d (Figure 23). The 30% reduction in fecundity is the maximum effect observed throughout this study using various EMF sources (Table 2). Distance/E-field intensity- dependent experiments were performed for both 6 min and 12 min daily exposure ( Figure 23). The exposure groups were placed at 0 (E1), 10 (E2) and 20 cm (E3) away from the RF source where the electrical field intensities were 22, 2 and 0.4 V/m, respectively. E1 group had the largest biological impact with 30% reduction in fecundity, a number that decreases linearly with the increase of the mobile phone-flies distance (group E2 ¼ 20% and group E3 ¼ 14%) ( Figure 23, Table 2). We also found a 17% and a 4% decrease in the E2 and E3 groups, respectively, exposed to GSM 1800 ...
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... HANDSET irradiation alone at an average E-field intensity of 2 V/m for 30 min daily caused in D. virilis an increase in apoptosis by threefold (see case number 10 in Table 1 and Figure 19). Fecundity was decreased by 20% in D. melanogaster and by 30% in D. virilis (see case numbers 7 and 8 in Table 2 and Figure 22). WIRELESS DECT BASE MOBILE PHONE AND DECT HANDSET COMBINATION. To evaluate if there is a synergistic impact from combined RF sources, simulating real-life exposure conditions where RF sources are used one after the other or intermittently, DECT base (at an average E- field intensity of 2.7 V/m) and handset (at an average E-field intensity of 2 V/m) were used separately as RF emitted sources and also in combination with mobile phone RF source. Three series of experiments were designed; at the first experimental protocol, sequential exposure from DECT base and mobile phone was used, at the second one the impact of consecutive exposure from DECT handset and mobile phone was estimated, while at the third experiment DECT handset 30 min emission was repeated after 15 min interval. In the first and the second protocols ovarian apoptotic cell death was approached in D. melanogaster and was found to be increased by fourfold in both experiments (see case numbers 8 and 11 in Table 1). Individual exposure to mobile phone radiation, the DECT base or the handset had the most hazardous effect on A number of different commercially available devices were used, including the wired ones. In all cases, following a 30 min daily exposure of flies at an average E-field intensity of 0.3 V/m for the first 7 d of their adult lives, a three-to fourfold increase, statistically significant was found (case numbers 12 and 13 in Table 1 and Figure 19). Fecundity was decreased by 11-13% in both insect species (case numbers 10 and 11 in Table 2 and Figure 22). For comparative purposes, mobile phone exposure was applied at an average E-field intensity of 12 V/m in parallel to the blue tooth in commu- nication. The simultaneous mobile phone GSM 1.8 GHz and the Wi-Fi continuously pulsing 2.44 GHz exposure had a large cell death increase by 7.4-fold, which was among the highest in all experiments (see case numbers 13 and 14 in Table 1 and Figure ...
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... HANDSET irradiation alone at an average E-field intensity of 2 V/m for 30 min daily caused in D. virilis an increase in apoptosis by threefold (see case number 10 in Table 1 and Figure 19). Fecundity was decreased by 20% in D. melanogaster and by 30% in D. virilis (see case numbers 7 and 8 in Table 2 and Figure 22). WIRELESS DECT BASE MOBILE PHONE AND DECT HANDSET COMBINATION. To evaluate if there is a synergistic impact from combined RF sources, simulating real-life exposure conditions where RF sources are used one after the other or intermittently, DECT base (at an average E- field intensity of 2.7 V/m) and handset (at an average E-field intensity of 2 V/m) were used separately as RF emitted sources and also in combination with mobile phone RF source. Three series of experiments were designed; at the first experimental protocol, sequential exposure from DECT base and mobile phone was used, at the second one the impact of consecutive exposure from DECT handset and mobile phone was estimated, while at the third experiment DECT handset 30 min emission was repeated after 15 min interval. In the first and the second protocols ovarian apoptotic cell death was approached in D. melanogaster and was found to be increased by fourfold in both experiments (see case numbers 8 and 11 in Table 1). Individual exposure to mobile phone radiation, the DECT base or the handset had the most hazardous effect on A number of different commercially available devices were used, including the wired ones. In all cases, following a 30 min daily exposure of flies at an average E-field intensity of 0.3 V/m for the first 7 d of their adult lives, a three-to fourfold increase, statistically significant was found (case numbers 12 and 13 in Table 1 and Figure 19). Fecundity was decreased by 11-13% in both insect species (case numbers 10 and 11 in Table 2 and Figure 22). For comparative purposes, mobile phone exposure was applied at an average E-field intensity of 12 V/m in parallel to the blue tooth in commu- nication. The simultaneous mobile phone GSM 1.8 GHz and the Wi-Fi continuously pulsing 2.44 GHz exposure had a large cell death increase by 7.4-fold, which was among the highest in all experiments (see case numbers 13 and 14 in Table 1 and Figure ...
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... addition, this work shows that the overall effect may not be attributed to the ELF component (217 Hz in the case of the mobile phones) because no ELF is present in many RF-tested sources, including DECT base, DECT handset, Wi-Fi, blue Figure 20) and also that GSM1800 is less bioactive compared to GSM900 under the same E-field ...
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... BASE irradiation alone was studied in both insect species. In D. melanogaster, 30 min daily exposure at an average E-field intensity of 2.7 V/m resulted in a threefold increase in apoptosis, whereas in D. virilis the increase revealed a 2.5-fold raise (see case numbers 9 and 7, respectively, in Table 1). Fecundity was affected equally in both species with a 26-27% decrease (see case numbers 3 and 4 in Table 2 and Figure ...
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... rationale behind the increase of ovarian apoptotic follicles suggests that DNA damage may not be direct as reported by several authors (Blank & Goodman 1997;Diem et al., 2005;Phillips et al., 2009) because a time delay of several hours is required following the exposure for the fragmented DNA to be detected by acridine orange and TUNEL assays. However, recent data claim that DNA molecules may act as a fractal antenna responding to electromagnetic radiation (Blank & Goodman 2011). The fact that ovarian apoptosis increase in not directly related to the fecundity decrease (Figure 25) implies that the two effects may be provoked by different direct or indirect EMF-induced mechanisms. They could both involve Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) elevation as found after exposure of the flies, in the ovaries and the other tissues of the insect ( Manta et al., 2013) or through charge transfer to the DNA molecule and stress protein synthesis (Blank & Goodman, ...
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... (D. melanogaster and D. virilis) were exposed as shown in Figure 7(E) to the radiation emitted by a blue tooth device paired with a mobile phone, daily for 30 min at an average E-field value of 0.3 V/m (see Tables 1 and 2) at the 2400- 2483 MHz band (see Figure 2) with recorded spectral analysis as shown in Figure 12(A). It is demonstrated that as in the case of Wi-Fi signals there is a tenfold difference between the average and the max E-field values recorded during exposure of the flies (comparing Figure 12A and B). When the blue tooth device is in operation-pairing with a mobile phone and communication during a call, as used in this study, the pulse repetition rate is 7.5 ms, that is, 133.3 Hz ( Figure 12C) and pulse duration 0.4 ms or shorter ( Figure ...
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... Same image acquired by dark field (B) and phase contrast respectively, (C) In the abnormal follicles a pattern of random cell aggregate occurs (white arrow) compared to normal stage 7 follicle (see Figure H). (D) Different ovarioles from an exposed insect with either normal follicles with no fluorescent signal (yellow arrow) or abnormal follicles of stage 7-8 with fragmented DNA displaying a clear fluorescent signal (white arrow). Fragmented DNA was observed only in stage 7-8 follicles. (E-F) The same image acquired by dark field microscopy (E) and bright field microscopy (F) revealing the differences in cell-arrangements in the inner part of normal follicles of middle oogenesis (yellow arrow) and abnormal follicles of the same stage (white arrows). (G) Image of a normal ovariole showing no apoptotic phenotype and therefore it will complete the developmental process of oogenesis according to the endogenously programmed differential gene expression. (H) Image acquired by phase contrast microscopy. Scale bar, 100 m. 18% reduction in reproductive capacity with statistically significant effect (p50.05) (case number 14 in Table 2 and Figure ...
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... The so far used intensity of the electrical field averaged over 6 min (ICNIRP, 1998) cannot be considered as a reliable method in EMF sources where rapid changes occur in a given frequency, (as in the case of the mobile phone where the power is controlled by the voice level) or in a broad band of frequencies, such as the Wi-Fi, blue tooth, DECT base and handset. In the latter cases, the spectrum analyzers normally used are not fast enough (large sweep time) and fail to record the pulses at the 6 min average interval (see our Figures 8B, 9A, 11B). As shown by the peak values, these are surprisingly very high (i.e. 8 V/M vs. 0.3 of the averaged value). Is the max value or the averaged value responsible for the bio effects in these cases? Our data strongly support the first assumption and if so, the generally used dosimetry using SAR should be revised in addition to the recently proposed by Blank & Goodman (2012) DNA-EMF effect on biologically based measure of EMF radiation to replace the energy-based ''specific absorption rate'' (SAR). Figure 24. Comparative 3-D spectrograms demonstrating the continuity of intensities in CW signals (A) vs. the discontinuous (pulsed) intensities in DECT handset emis- sion profile (B). Horizontal axis (left to right) shows frequency. Vertical axis on upper panel represents intensity. The third dimension represented in the lower panel corresponds to the time scale. The vertical lanes shown in Figure A depict the continuity in intensities whereas the dotted appearance on Figure B demonstrates the discontinuous (pulsed) radiation intensity of the DECT handset emission. (Spectrograms recorded with the Rohde & Schwarz FSH8 spectrum ...
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... baby monitor. Therefore, a clear RF effect reinforced by the presence of pulses as in the case of the blue tooth device which albeit having a very low average E-field intensity (just 0.3 V/m) produces the same overall damage on cell death and reproduction as more intense but CW (non-pulsed) signals like the FM signal generator with 43-fold more exposure intensity (13 V/m); the values for apoptosis were found to be sevenfold and those of fecundity reduction À13% vs. À19%, respectively. This difference in the modulation properties of the radiation (Figure 24) may explain the changes but in a still unknown mode, although ROS are concomitantly increasing with the ACD raise and the fecundity decrease ( Manta et al., 2013) complementary to the findings by Weisbrot et al. (2003); these authors also used D. melanogaster flies and have found a rapid induction of hsp70 within minutes, together with identified components of signal transduction ...
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... ROUTER irradiation. These devices emit pulsed radiation at 10 Hz rate with pulse duration of 1 ms (see Figure 11C and D). Adult flies from both insect species were exposed for 30 min daily at an average E-field intensity of 2.1 V/m and apoptosis was detected at a threefold value (see case numbers 15 and 16 in Table 1 and Figure 19), whereas fecundity was decreased by 12% (see case number 13 in Table 2 and Figure 22). BABY MONITOR irradiation. The device was activated through sound (radio playing) and was set 10 min on-10 min off three times in a period of 1 h to simulate intermittent activation under real-life conditions. Flies were exposed for 5 d at an average E-field intensity of 20 V/m with the antenna close to the vials as described. The experiments performed in D. melanogaster showed that baby monitor exposure causes a Figure 18. The impact of GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation in the oogenesis of Drosophila virilis using light microscopy based analysis (fluorescence, dark field, phase contrast) applying the TUNEL assay in the ovaries of the exposed flies. (A) Ovariole of an exposed female showing fragmented DNA only in stage 7 follicle (white arrow). These apoptotic follicles were observed in both exposure protocols of 3 d and 1 d ...
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... results presented herein were performed during the last 4 years in the laboratory of electromagnetic biology utilizing the established protocol of insect culture and EMF exposure setup. All experiments have independently been replicated and only those fulfilling the statistical criteria have been used. All researchers used well established and published by our lab assays for reproductive capacity and apoptotic cell death and their contribution is as follows: L. H. Margaritis, designed all experiments, gathered the data, made the statistics and wrote the final manuscript with the assistance of A. Manta and A. Skouroliakou. Kokkaliaris and Schiza performed and contributed to the design of the experiments on Drosophila virilis/mobile phone exposure and provided a draft text in English. The rest authors performed the experiments and gave a full description of their work in Greek as follows: Alimisis on the MW oven, Giannakopoulou on the baby monitor, Figure 25. Correlation of apoptotic cell death increase with the fecundity decrease for the different exposure protocols as shown in Tables 1 and 2. A slight linear correlation is visible according to a best fit ...
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... OVEN (RF AND ELF COMPONENTS). Two series of experiments were performed because this device has double EMF components, an RF magnetron source creating 2.44-2.48 GHz microwave radiation (see Figure 2) inside the chamber but leaving considerable amount leaking out and also a strong magnetic field (see Figures 15 and 16) due to the power consumption during operation. An attempt was made to isolate the RF radiation from Figure 19. Bar graphs showing ovarian apoptotic cell death increase induced by the various EMF sources and as detected by acridine orange staining, In Sham-exposed and Control flies the percentage of apoptotic follicles was found to be 2.5 AE 0.6 for Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 2.8 AE 0.7 for Drosophila virilis (Dv) while in flies exposed to EMF sources the percentage increased by 2-7 fold. Refer to Table 1 for details concerning exposure conditions and source combinations. Table 3. Table showing fecundity and apoptotic follicles in a representative set of experiments. Fecundity is derived after counting the number of pupae that emerge in every sample divided by the female numbers (10 in most cases). Then the percentage of reduction is calculated by comparing the average numbers between sham-exposed and exposed samples (see Table 2). Apoptotic ovarian follicles at middle oogenesis were counted in comparison to the healthy follicles after dissecting 10 females, ovaries removed, collection, staining with acridine orange and observation under green fluorescence (see Figure 17). Identical exposure conditions were applied for both approaches and all series of experiments, (see text and Tables 1 and 2 the ELF component by housing the oven within a Faraday cage (there is no way to isolate the magnetic field ...
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... BROADCAST STATION AT 92.8 MHz. This series of experiments were designed to explore the bioactivity of the FM broadcast band. D. melanogaster adult flies were exposed at an average E-field intensity of 13 V/m to an FM signal at 92.8 MHz without sound transmission. The daily exposure duration was 30 min as in most of the other RF sources' experiments, according to the same protocol identifying ovarian follicle cell death and reproduction performance. It was found that ovarian follicle cell death was increased by 3.5-fold (case number 17 in Table 1 and Figure 19) and fecundity was decreased by 19.4% (case number 15 in Table 2 and Figure 22). Interestingly, a developmental retardation was observed in the egg chambers' formation. Ovaries of exposed flies were containing stages of early and middle oogenesis only, while sham-exposed flies had their ovaries fully developed, containing late oogenesis staged egg chambers (data not ...
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... exposure protocols tested had an impact on reproduct- ive capacity (Table 2, Figure 22 . Spectral analysis of the micro- waves leaking out of a typical MW oven used to expose flies -see also Figure 2 for the similarity in band coverage between MW oven, blue tooth and Wi-Fi. (A) Typical averaged over 6 min spectrum (NARDA SRM3000 spectrum analyzer recording). (B) Power channel measurement at 15 cm dis- tance (16.7 V/m). (C) Zero span recording of 2.42 GHz at 100 ms sweep rate showing the nearly 50 Hz pulsed form of the microwaves (Rohde & Schwarz FSH8, spectrum ...
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... exposure protocols tested had an impact on reproduct- ive capacity (Table 2, Figure 22 . Spectral analysis of the micro- waves leaking out of a typical MW oven used to expose flies -see also Figure 2 for the similarity in band coverage between MW oven, blue tooth and Wi-Fi. (A) Typical averaged over 6 min spectrum (NARDA SRM3000 spectrum analyzer recording). (B) Power channel measurement at 15 cm dis- tance (16.7 V/m). (C) Zero span recording of 2.42 GHz at 100 ms sweep rate showing the nearly 50 Hz pulsed form of the microwaves (Rohde & Schwarz FSH8, spectrum ...
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... without RF protective screen (Faraday cage) between the oven and the flies Flies exposed for 10 min daily for 6 d at a distance of 20 cm from the oven's door without RF protective screen between oven and flies, showed a threefold increase in apoptosis and 16.7% decrease in fecundity (see case numbers 18 in Table 1, Figure 19 and 16 in Table 2, Figure 22, respectively). Statistics with one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis non- parametric statistics revealed values p ¼ 0.004 and 0.008, respectively. Therefore, the exposure of flies to microwave oven radiation at 2.44 GHz, average electrical field level of 10 V/m in combination to the 50 Hz ELF component deriving from the magnetron power consumption creating 100 mG magnetic field at a distance of 20 cm from the oven's door, Exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation induces cell death during the middle stages of oogenesis (acridine orange staining for detection of DNA fragmentation). The exposed group was always placed in contact with the cell phone in operation voice activated through playing radio or 6 min/12 min recorded narration (to mimic live communication). The graphs show that duration of exposure (6 min vs. 12 min) seems to be an important factor while repeated doses do not seem to worsen the ...
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... Dipteran insect D. virilis was used for the first time as a model system to reveal any effects of mobile phone GSM 900 MHz and GSM 1800 MHz radiation extending our previous work on D. melanogaster . Various exposure protocols were designed and implemented including a single-day radiation dose versus a 3-day dose (Tables 1 and 2). Duration impact was also investigated; thus flies were exposed for 6 min at the first series of experiments and for 12 min at the second ones. To test for intermittent exposure effects, the mobile phone radiation was given three times at 1 h interval in-between. At the same time another exposed group was subjected to the same exposure protocol for 3 d. All experimental exposure schemes led to a significant increase in the levels of cell death, mostly, during middle oogenesis in D. virilis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that vitellogenic stages (7-8) responded to radiation showing fragmentation of their DNA ( Figure 18). Insects exposed to the mobile phone radiation under the protocol of the short-term exposure (6 min) revealed a 3-4 fold increase in the level of cell death occurring in middle stages of oogenesis ( Figure 20). Longer exposure (12 min) caused a greater increase of cell death; a sixfold average induction was the effect of the exposure in the GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation (Figure 20). Interestingly, single-day exposure both for 6 min or 12 min had the same statistically significant impact with the 3 d consecutive exposure protocol (case numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 in Table 1 and Figure 19), a 3.1-and 3.7-fold increase respectively in apoptotic follicles, as detected by the TUNEL assay for DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptotic cells. This assay also confirmed the acridine orange staining data revealing a 5.8-fold increase for 3 d exposure and a similar 5.3-fold increase for just 1 d exposure ( Figure 21). Levels of apoptotic cell death in the control groups were within the anticipated values (2-3%) of check point dependent follicle cell death occurring normally during middle oogenesis as reported before ( Velentzas et al., ...
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... Dipteran insect D. virilis was used for the first time as a model system to reveal any effects of mobile phone GSM 900 MHz and GSM 1800 MHz radiation extending our previous work on D. melanogaster . Various exposure protocols were designed and implemented including a single-day radiation dose versus a 3-day dose (Tables 1 and 2). Duration impact was also investigated; thus flies were exposed for 6 min at the first series of experiments and for 12 min at the second ones. To test for intermittent exposure effects, the mobile phone radiation was given three times at 1 h interval in-between. At the same time another exposed group was subjected to the same exposure protocol for 3 d. All experimental exposure schemes led to a significant increase in the levels of cell death, mostly, during middle oogenesis in D. virilis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that vitellogenic stages (7-8) responded to radiation showing fragmentation of their DNA ( Figure 18). Insects exposed to the mobile phone radiation under the protocol of the short-term exposure (6 min) revealed a 3-4 fold increase in the level of cell death occurring in middle stages of oogenesis ( Figure 20). Longer exposure (12 min) caused a greater increase of cell death; a sixfold average induction was the effect of the exposure in the GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation (Figure 20). Interestingly, single-day exposure both for 6 min or 12 min had the same statistically significant impact with the 3 d consecutive exposure protocol (case numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 in Table 1 and Figure 19), a 3.1-and 3.7-fold increase respectively in apoptotic follicles, as detected by the TUNEL assay for DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptotic cells. This assay also confirmed the acridine orange staining data revealing a 5.8-fold increase for 3 d exposure and a similar 5.3-fold increase for just 1 d exposure ( Figure 21). Levels of apoptotic cell death in the control groups were within the anticipated values (2-3%) of check point dependent follicle cell death occurring normally during middle oogenesis as reported before ( Velentzas et al., ...
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... E-field intensity EXPOSURE PROTOCOL CONTROL/SHAM- EXPOSED [1] for D. Virilis [2] for D. melanogaster see Figure 7(I) for setup EXPOSED see Figure 7(A)-(H) for setup Table 2. Reproductive capacity (fecundity) change measured as an indication of viable offspring at the stage of pupae (see Table 3) following the various irradiation protocols used for both insect species D. melanogaster and D. virilis. p Values were calculated through the SPSS software. Refer to Figure 23 for a graphical representation of the data. Numbers in brackets denote ''case numbers'' of each experimental protocol and correspond to bar numbers in Figure 22. ...
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... E-field intensity EXPOSURE PROTOCOL CONTROL/SHAM- EXPOSED [1] for D. Virilis [2] for D. melanogaster see Figure 7(I) for setup EXPOSED see Figure 7(A)-(H) for setup Table 2. Reproductive capacity (fecundity) change measured as an indication of viable offspring at the stage of pupae (see Table 3) following the various irradiation protocols used for both insect species D. melanogaster and D. virilis. p Values were calculated through the SPSS software. Refer to Figure 23 for a graphical representation of the data. Numbers in brackets denote ''case numbers'' of each experimental protocol and correspond to bar numbers in Figure 22. ...

Citations

... Indicative ones are on sperm [73,74] and Drosophila [75] (body/ovaries [76]). Near-field EMF GSM (at 900 MHz, ''modulated'' via speaking vs. nonspeaking emission) decrease the reproductive capacity of Drosophila by 50-60% vs. 15-20% (after exposure for 6 min/day during only the first 2-5 days of adult life) [77], the oogenesis of which has been proposed as a biomarker for EMF sources [78]. Extending research in the chronic whole body exposure of mice Balb/c to EMF (GSM at 900 MHz for 3 h/day and by wireless DECT base for 8 h/day), proteome changes (overexpression/downregulation) were recorded in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum [56]. ...
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Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) disrupt the electrochemical balance of biological membranes, thereby causing abnormal cation movement and deterioration of the function of membrane voltage-gated ion channels. These can trigger an increase of oxidative stress (OS) and the impairment of all cellular functions, including DNA damage and subsequent carcinogenesis. In this review we focus on the main mechanisms of OS generation by EMF-sensitized NADPH oxidase (NOX), the involved OS biochemistry, and the associated key biological effects.
... The results obtained in this study that show an increase in the fecundity of Drosophila imago under the influence of microwave irradiation are in good agreement with our previous results [23]. However, it should be noted that the literature data are fairly contradictory: there is information about both an increase in the effect [13] and its absence [24], as well as a decrease in fecundity [25][26][27]. The differences in the obtained results are, apparently, associated with the differences in the experimental procedures, the parameters (frequency, power, and duration of exposure) of microwave radiation, the stage of ontogenesis at which exposure was performed, and the characteristics of Drosophila strains. ...
... This is obvious by simple comparison of the corresponding parts of the text between the two papers, especially the parts referring to the main experimental procedure. They also included experiments with a DECT phone, apart from the GSM 900 phone, based on the same methodology which was also not novel as it was already published [29]. Again Geronikolou, et al. did not report that their experiments with DECT phone were duration of time as the exposures, in order to take also into account any possible stress on the animals due to the view of the exposure devices outside the vials or even the voice of the experimenter while doing the exposures in "talk" mode (as in Panagopoulos, et al. studies). ...
... This additional flaw in Geronikolou, et al. (2014) [1] can explain the weaker effects they found than in Panagopoulos, et al. studies in spite of their significantly longer daily exposure duration (20 min instead of 6), and the same (interestingly identical) average count in their control groups as in the sham-exposed of Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) [2], although they enriched the food (of identical other composition as in Panagopoulos, et al.) by adding diluted yeast on its surface which can increase oviposition by up to 300% [9] while Panagopoulos, et al. did not. [Experiments with cordless phone EMFs using the specific fruit fly experimental protocols were also already published by a coauthor of ours [29] but even if they were not, Geronikolou, et al. (2014) [1] should report that they applied the experimental protocols introduced by Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) [2] to test the bioactivity of DECT phones]. In both cases they found a weaker effect than in Panagopoulos, et al. studies with mobile phones, but with the cordless phone they found a weaker and statistically less significant effect (P = 0.0445) than with the mobile phone (P = 0.0090). ...
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I recently reported induction of chromatid-type aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after a single 15 min exposure to Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Mobile Telephony (MT) electromagnetic field (EMF) from a mobile phone. Lymphocytes from six healthy subjects were stimulated for mitosis, and exposed during the G2/M phase at 1 cm distance from the handset during an active phone call in “talk” mode (Panagopoulos 2019a). The same type of cells from the same subjects treated with a high caffeine dose (~290 times above the permissible single dose for an adult human) exhibited the same type of aberrations in a little smaller but comparable degree. The combination of this caffeine dose and the 15 min MT EMF exposure increased dramatically the number of aberrations in all subjects. The combined effect increased almost linearly with increasing duration of exposure to the MT EMF. Thus, MT EMF exposure ~136 times below the official limit (ICNIRP 2020) exerts a genotoxic action even greater than that of a caffeine dose ~290 times above the corresponding limit. Therefore, with a reasonable approximation, the limit for MT EMFs should be lowered by at least 40000 times (136x290) for short-term exposures, and 4000000 times for long-term exposures.
... Heat generation, physiological and chemical, and neural progressions brought by radiofrequency application may be responsible for weak reproductive capacity, low adult emergence and poor quality of adults of both perilla seed bug species. Radiofrequency application could lead to changes in insect behaviour, physiology, and morphology over time due to an increase in body temperatures (Thielens et al., 2018), and increase mortality and reduce hatching rate due to deteriorate reproductive capacity (Margaritis et al., 2014). Further, Nelson (1996) reported that radiofrequency treatment damaged sperm cells and ovarian tissue, reducing the fertilization and hatching rate. ...
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The genus Nysius (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) are polyphagous pests of various plants that damage seeds, foliage, and flowers. Here, we studied the life-table parameters and adult performances of Nysius plebeius Distant and Nysius hidakai Nakatani after exposure to five radiofrequencies: 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, and 30 kHz in infested perilla seeds. In addition, we measured the follow on effects of treatment for four generations (Parent, F1-, F2-, and F3-generation), for both Nysius species. Radiofrequency application significantly affected the life-table parameters of both Nysius species. Radiofrequency exposures affected bug oviposition, developmental period, adult weight, and longevity. Exposure also negatively affected the fecundity of subsequent generations; total developmental period from egg to adult emergence was longer while adult longevity was shorter in the radiofrequency treatments than in the untreated control. Low radiofrequency levels had the greatest effect on the life-table parameters of Nysius species, with the lowest rate of adult emergence and the shortest adult longevity at 5 kHz. The potential of using Nysius bug susceptibilities to radiofrequency as an alternative to chemical treatment is discussed.
... In vitro studies in general have shown by meta-analysis in 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications describing 1127 experimental observations in cell-based in vitro models that cellular response varies with signal properties [2]. Recent articles elaborate on the parameters of real world PTS exposure [3][4][5] but generally, it has been demonstrated that PTS from various domestic sources affects normal functions [6]. ...
Preprint
The expanding use of devices emitting Pulsed Telecommunication Signals (PTS) has launched a serious debate over the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on living organisms. Our previous work has indicated that PTS exposure alters Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) metabolism in human cells of neural origin, providing a possible connection between exposure and neurodegeneration. This investigation aimed to reveal, in vitro in human non-neural cells (HEK293), the aftermath of the same exposure on the processing of APP and α-syn. Data presented here, indicate changes in APP metabolism, acquisition of different cellular topologies of the newly generated APP fragments, changes in monomeric α-syn accumulation and multimerization, indicating that APP and α-syn processing is possibly altered in the periphery by EMR. These effects are accompanied by a substantial increase in the levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Further investigation is required in order to provide insights into the interaction of PTS with non-neural cells affecting the peripheral systemic functional stability. This is necessary because nowadays whole body human exposure from various EMR sources is a fact in normal life with the valid estimation that they may be increased in view of the forthcoming 5G telecommunications network implementation.
... • Alteration of heart rhythm [12] • Altered gene expression [13] • Altered metabolism [14] • Altered stem cell development [15] • Cancers [16] • Cardiovascular disease [17] • Cognitive impairment [18] • DNA damage [19] • Impacts on general well-being [20] • Increased free radicals [21] • Learning and memory deficits [22] • Impaired sperm function and quality [23] • Miscarriage [24] • Neurological damage [25] • Obesity and diabetes [26] • Oxidative stress [27] • Fruit flies [39] • Honey bees [40] • Insects [41] • Mammals [42] • Mice [43,44] • Plants [45] • Rats [46] • Trees [47] • Negative microbiological effects [48] have also been recorded. ...
... TH is the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis and a marker of dopaminergic neurons [38]. Moreover, TH expression in dopaminergic neurons directly influences the quantitative regulation of dopamine in dopaminergic neurons, and hence TH expression can be indicative of the survival as well as the functional status of dopaminergic neurons [39]. Thus, a deficiency in TH causes impaired synthesis of dopamine [40]. ...
... Considering the Nissl substances were of great importance for protein synthesis, the changes in neuronal metabolisms were detected. The expressions of AchE, BDNF, COX and SOD in hippocampus were detected by the immunohistochemistry. AchE was closely related to the metabolism of acetylcholine, which was a kind of neurotransmitter and played an important role in learning and memory [38,39]. BDNF, a kind of growth factor, was closely related with the synaptic plasticity [40]. ...
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Effects [of exposure to 5G] include increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harm- ful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive systems, learning and memory deficits, neu- rological disorders, and negative impacts on general well-being in humans. Living organisms at all levels, the scientists added, are affected by exposure to electro- magnetic fields produced by smartphone devices and transmission towers. Damage is not limited to humans as there is growing evidence of harmful effects in both plant and animal life.
... One of the chambers hosted the base unit of a DECT telephone apparatus (General, Model 123) which was appropriately positioned. The DECT unit was in a 24 h a day, 7 days a week, pulsed transmission mode, at 1882 MHz, as described elsewhere (Margaritis et al. 2014). The temperature, set to 22.0 (± 0.2) in both chambers, was constantly monitored with an industrial, two channel Data Logging (Model AZ9882), printing thermometer (Probe sensitivity: approximately 43 µV/°C) through the attached Type T (copper-constantan) needle shaped, thermocouples. ...
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Main conclusion: Although exposure to low frequency electromagnetic radiation is harmful to plants, LF-EM irradiated Nerium oleander seedlings exhibited enhanced development and growth, probably taking advantage of defined structural leaf deformations. Currently, evidence supports the undesirable, often destructive impact of low frequency electromagnetic (LF-EM) radiation on plants. The response of plants to LF-EM radiation often entails induction in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, a subject matter that is well documented. Nerium oleander is a Mediterranean plant species, which evolved remarkable resistance to various environmental stress conditions. In the current investigation, cultivated N. oleander plants, following their long-term exposure to LF-EM radiation, exhibited major structural modifications as the flattening of crypts, the elimination of trichomes and the reduction of the layers of the epidermal cells. These changes co-existed with an oxidative stress response manifested by a significant increase in reactive oxygen species at both the roots and the above ground parts, a decline in the absorbance of light by photosynthetic pigments and the substantially increased biosynthesis of L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC), an enzyme catalyzing the production of secondary metabolites that alleviate stress. The exposed plants exhibited greater primary plant productivity, despite a manifested photosynthetic pigment limitation and the severe oxidative stress. This unique response of N. oleander to severe abiotic stress conditions may be owed to the advantage offered by a structural change consistent to an easier diffusion of CO2 within the leaves. A major plant response to an emerging "pollutant" was documented.
... In addition to diseases in humans, especially children [14][15][16], near antenna-emitters, the adverse effect extends to forests [17], plants, including agricultural (corn, rosé, peas, fenugreek, duckweed, tomato, onion, and mango plants) [18], ants [19][20][21][22][23], bees [22][23], Drosophila [24], birds [25][26][27], animals [28][29][30][31]. Thus, electromagnetic pollution disrupts ecological equilibrium, causes extinction of insects, tree diseases, mutations of microorganisms and viruses, and adversely affects the health of the population. ...
Article
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Electromagnetic pollution of the environment has become a significant environmental factor. The intensity of technogenic electromagnetic fields far exceeds the background indicators to which organisms have adapted in the course of evolution, in particular by their biorhythms. Much data on the biological effects of low-intensity (non-thermal) extremely high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EHF-EMF) at different levels of the organization has been accumulated. There are many possible explanations for these impacts, but the mechanism of action is not established. The purpose of this work is to analyze the negative effects of the use of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. In particular, the use of microwave therapy is considered. A review of reports on the harmful effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic and magnetic fields among the population and professional groups has been made; the presence of the problem of hypersensitivity to such fields was shown. Information on the development of the direction of study of the resonant biological influence of EHF-EMF by Ukrainian specialists was provided. Particular attention is paid to the use of non-thermal microwaves for physiotherapy procedures, pain relief, correction of psycho-emotional disorders, ulcer healing, in particular stomach and duodenum, etc. It is noted that the so-called "therapeutic" frequencies of EHF-EMF, even if controlled, can cause negative effects, although they are not perceived as damaging. Changes in objective vital signs in the case of targeted exposure by low-intensity millimeter-wave radiation, namely, hemodynamics, temperature increase in the exposure zone, muscle activity, and the speed of the passage of a nerve impulse, an encephalogram were established. Precautionary recommendations based on the scientific and practical experience of using microwave acupuncture methods in the conditions of medical institutions are formulated. The synergistic effect of various influences, in particular electromagnetic fields, may not be a direct trigger of the disease, but a factor of not compensated stress. Therefore, clinical studies conducted many years ago cannot simply be dismissed on the grounds that the millimeter radiation penetrates only the outer layer of the skin. Skin cells can also secrete mediators that cause changes in ionic calcium channels and the level of calcium in the cells. The interest in these works is justified by the fact that currently the sources of monochromatic millimeter radiation will be spread with new communication systems. The risks of their biological action should be taken into account when emitters are installed.
... This is obvious by simple comparison of the corresponding parts of the text between the two papers, especially the parts referring to the main experimental procedure. They also included experiments with a DECT phone, apart from the GSM 900 phone, based on the same methodology which was also not novel as it was already published [29]. Again Geronikolou, et al. did not report that their experiments with DECT phone were duration of time as the exposures, in order to take also into account any possible stress on the animals due to the view of the exposure devices outside the vials or even the voice of the experimenter while doing the exposures in "talk" mode (as in Panagopoulos, et al. studies). ...
... This additional flaw in Geronikolou, et al. (2014) [1] can explain the weaker effects they found than in Panagopoulos, et al. studies in spite of their significantly longer daily exposure duration (20 min instead of 6), and the same (interestingly identical) average count in their control groups as in the sham-exposed of Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) [2], although they enriched the food (of identical other composition as in Panagopoulos, et al.) by adding diluted yeast on its surface which can increase oviposition by up to 300% [9] while Panagopoulos, et al. did not. [Experiments with cordless phone EMFs using the specific fruit fly experimental protocols were also already published by a coauthor of ours [29] but even if they were not, Geronikolou, et al. (2014) [1] should report that they applied the experimental protocols introduced by Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) [2] to test the bioactivity of DECT phones]. In both cases they found a weaker effect than in Panagopoulos, et al. studies with mobile phones, but with the cordless phone they found a weaker and statistically less significant effect (P = 0.0445) than with the mobile phone (P = 0.0090). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper by Geronikolou, et al. (2014) “Diverse Radiofrequency Sensitivity and Radiofrequency Effects of Mobile or Cordless Phone near Fields Exposure in Drosophila melanogaster” [1] published in Plos One supposedly presents original work on the effects of mobile and cordless phones electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction. The paper reports that two of its authors “conceived and designed the experiments”. This is not the case. The paper is a replication of the experimental procedures introduced by Panagopoulos, et al. (2004) “Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster” [2], and applied since then in many publications (Panagopoulos, et al. 2007a; b; 2010; 2013; Panagopoulos, 2016; 2017; 2019) [3-5,15,16,20,21]. Geronikolou, et al. followed the same experimental methodology without reporting replication or even citing the original study. Then, they differentiated on secondary points - employing a different statistical method, calculating theoretically the near-field instead of measuring it, not sham-exposing the control groups, and including experiments with cordless phones based on the same procedures - which led them to serious flaws and misleading conclusions. Our present commentary is a necessary action to protect authorship and restore science in regards to experiments with mobile and cordless phones.
... This applies to people as well as to all ecosystems that include flora and fauna. Results of epidemiological studies of environmental damage caused by EMF on woods [12], plants (including corn, roses, peas, fenugreek, duckweed, tomatoes, onions and mangoes) [13], ants [14][15][16], bees [17,18], drosophila's [19], birds [20][21][22], animals [23][24][25][26], compel us to think about consequences from the point of view of bioethics. ...