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Doñana and Sierra Nevada protected areas and their surroundings  

Doñana and Sierra Nevada protected areas and their surroundings  

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Integrating ecosystem services into ecosystem-based management (EBM) is currently one of the most relevant challenges for management. For that purpose, it is necessary to depict the relationships established between ecosystems and society considering the delivery, use and governance of ecosystem services. One effective way of doing so involves coll...

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... Andalusian National Park of Sierra Nevada and Doñana, as Mediterranean social-ecological systems ( Fig. 1), have undergone historical processes of com- plex co-evolution based on the interactions between ecosystem components and human societies (Wright and Campbell 2008;Gómez-Baggethun et al. ...

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... As communities continue to address the unforeseen effects of development, the social dimensions of ecosystem restoration have become integrated into the process of project planning and implementation (Moreno et al., 2014;Reed and Bruyneel, 2010;Reed, 2008). This comes from a myriad of directions including a need for equity and environmental justice (Lemos and Agrawal, 2006), an understanding that community values play an integral role in achieving sustainability (Horlings, 2015), and a recognition that relationship building among stakeholders can provide opportunities for social learning and problem solving (Mollinga, 2010;Pahl-wostl et al., 2007;Tress et al., 2005). ...
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The combined effects of urbanization and climate change require resource managers to navigate interacting social and ecological dimensions of environment in the stewardship of ecosystem goods and services. The challenge of integrating multiple management paradigms into the planning process for sustainable restoration is complex, yet when handled successfully, can result in the emergence of ecosystem goods and services. The present study uses the restoration of the North Branch of the Pike River in Southeastern Wisconsin, USA as a case study to understand the contributions of situational context and actor agency in the integration of management paradigms, and transformation of a highly degraded stream ecosystem into a vibrant community asset. Drawing from the social-ecological systems and dynamic systems change literatures, the management and transition framework was used to analyze the 20-year restoration process from problem definition and planning through implementation. Review of planning documents, meeting notes, and interviews with key individuals identified the factors necessary to understand how a social-ecological system navigated through conflict, negotiation of an integrated management paradigm, implementation, and adaptive learning. As convening contexts changed , different actors assumed convening, bridging, sense making, and leveraging roles as legitimacy and trust in the process was built over time. Integration of paradigms was identified as a learning opportunity , as the incorporation of diverse ways of knowing resulted in the emergence of novel ecosystem goods and services. The performance of the novel integrated management paradigm since completion is discussed , including takeaways managers should keep in mind when applying the approach elsewhere.
... Although 14 respondents may seem a small number, it constitutes a sample appropriate for exploratory mental models elicitation, as suggested by Morgan (2002). A similar number (10-22 respondents) has been used in several previous studies that explored mental models, both through focus groups or workshops, to elicit collective mental models (Moreno et al. 2014;Henly-Shepard et al. 2015) and one-on-one interviews or surveys to elicit individual mental models (Levänen and Hukkinen 2013;Morss et al. 2015;Bostrom et al. 2016). It should also be noted that the sampling frame for this study does not include the whole population of Brisbane but residents living close to the site -within a radius of 400 m from the water body's banks, a distance that can be reached within 5 min of walking. ...
... Finally, the methodology used in this study offers a practical tool to gauge community landscape preferences and expectations prior to installing a particular WSUD asset. Using mental models as a participatory tool for eliciting landscape values related to ecosystem services has been proposed by Moreno et al. (2014). ...
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Context Ecological design used for stormwater management—referred to as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD)—exemplifies how urban environments can benefit from mimicking natural processes to create multifunctional urban spaces. However, for WSUD to be successfully adopted, it must respond to community landscape perceptions and incorporate their preferences into the designs. Objectives This paper investigates whether members of a local community form mental models of how broader urban systems work and whether these inform how specific WSUD landscapes are perceived. Methods Semi-structured interviews with residents near a stormwater wetland in Brisbane, Australia, provided data to elicit mental models of the wetland and higher-order schemata of urban systems of which it is seen to be a part. Results Interviewees perceived the wetland through the lens of four mental models: animal haven, generic water infrastructure, multi-user community space, and pressure valve for urban consolidation. Schemata of broader urban systems manifested in the mental models of the wetland itself. The experience of Millennium Drought, perceived ecosystem demise and urban consolidation policies were important influences. Conclusions This research contributes to the understanding of cultural sustainability of ecological design. The results suggest that public acceptance of WSUD and ecological design may benefit from (1) site design that shows effort to tackle priority concerns of the local community, and (2) addressing elements of the understanding of broader urban systems that contradict messages about the site. More broadly, the study demonstrates the importance of context for landscape perception research and offers a method to explore it.
... Thus, direct identification of natural resources by inhabitants has been attempted to analyze ecological services and inform ecological service management policies. In this way, studies have covered not only ecological resources such as water (Moreno 2014) but also personal spaces such as farms (Rolf et al. 2019). ...
... Public participation GIS is a method of creating maps with the assistance of residents and is a very effective method that uses the latest ecological knowledge of residents in a decision-making tool for spatial planning (Brown 2012;Brown and Gaberholm 2015). Accordingly, a spatial management plan for water control (Moreno 2014) and cultural ecosystem services (Canedoli et al. 2017) was proposed using a public participation GIS technique. Although these studies only presented hot spots of selected indicators, created using simple sums of the perceptions of trade-off relationships between indicators, it was not possible to map the context between indicators of ecosystem services in the local areas. ...
... At the point where these functions met, multifunctional natural resources were found. In comparison to mapping the opinions of inhabitants through public participation GIS (Moreno 2014;Canedoli et al. 2017), this method can more effectively evaluate a target site using standardized factor analysis techniques, and it can also cover a variety of topics. However, there is a limitation in that it is not possible to ascertain the spatial context of the factor analysis and how this can be utilized at a later stage. ...
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... The Ramsar Convention uses the specialized Rapid Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Services as an official instrument to assess wetlands (McInnes and Everard 2017). In addition, resident participatory assessments have been conducted to examine the multifunctionality of ecosystems (Rolf et al., 2018), derive forecasts for the future (Helfenstein and Kienast 2014), and prepare management plans for ecosystem services (Moreno et al., 2014;Merriman et al., 2018). Furthermore, there are various methods available for such participatory assessment: while some cases use a questionnaire (McInnes and Everard 2017), others adopt the Public Participation Geographic Information System (Canedoli et al., 2017) or text analysis (Riechers et al., 2016). ...
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... Abandonment of traditionally managed pastureland is directly linked to declining ecosystem services in mountain areas [31]. In the mountainous areas of Spain, nature-based tourism services are affected by the development of large tourism infrastructure and inappropriate tourist behavior [32]. Environmental issues, such as forest fires that are caused by depopulation of mountain areas, call for mapping land use and land cover changes, and building evidence for improved land management solutions [9]. ...
... Five experts were directly involved in establishing the binary links between land characteristics and landscape functions. Moreno et al. [32] model mental maps, which help to improve knowledge, understand the various points of view of the diverse stakeholders and consider their proposals to solve specific problems in protected areas [119]. ...
... Swetnam et al. [20] create a participatory scenario-building exercise to develop quantitative maps that could assist decision-makers better than simple statistical reports. Moreno et al. [32] use a participatory technique to reveal the complexity of ecosystem services and integrate the ecosystem services framework into ecosystem-based management. ...
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... Furthermore, decision makers were not the main targeted audience of any of the groups of projects identified by the cluster analysis. Conservation actions that do not increase the environmental awareness of these influential actors may limit the environmental decision cascade (Moreno et al. 2014). ...
... Decision-makers and government practitioners seldom were targeted by CEPA. These stakeholders have great ability to influence environmental decisions, but they need to be aware of the importance, values, and consequences of the use and management of ES to make informed decisions (Moreno et al. 2014;Beery et al. 2016;Ruppert and Duncan 2017). Another weakness we perceived was the lack of CEPA aimed at indigenous communities. ...
... In 2020, education will be the focus for achieving the Aichi targets, particularly in awareness and integrated participation (goals A and E). We found that CEPA was prevalent in the conservation projects, which means that the RACs are trying to promote people's environmental awareness, empowerment, and skills to support conservation (Sodhi et al. 2010;Moreno et al. 2014;Hutcheson et al. 2018). Different uses of CEPA (i.e., as a mean and as an end) support sustainability (Sterling 2010; Jiménez-Aceituno et al. 2014). ...
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... Specific linkages between humans and landscapes are characterized across many scales (i.e., microscopic to global; Werner and McNamara 2007), and simultaneously involve multiple spatial, temporal, social, and biophysical elements (Miller et al. 2017). This plurality of scales is at the heart of contemporary approaches to park and protected area (PPA) management, such as Ecosystem Management (Moreno et al. 2014) andIntegrated Coastal Management (Olsen 2003). However, in some contexts, management agencies have yet to fully embrace these reciprocal complexities. ...
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... In summary, the usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in planning is reported by several studies and lies in its communicative power and in its capacity to be more easily understood by stakeholders and policymakers compared to other ecological concepts, thus facilitating collaborative planning, stakeholder engagement and interdisciplinary research, bridging gaps between different policy fields and ultimately increasing legitimacy of planning choices Moreno et al. 2014;Sitas et al. 2014;Bull et al. 2016;Wissen Hayek et al. 2016;Galler et al. 2016). Ecosystem Services thus appear to be a very valuable concept and operational tool to pursue ecological rationality in planning and, specifically in the EU context, to implement the integration between biodiversity conservation and planning put forward by the EU Biodiversity Strategy. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we address the different forms of rationality drawing from insights of political science. Five main forms of rationality are examined––technical, economic, legal, social and political—and their relevance for spatial planning is discussed. The main limitations of such forms of rationality are analysed. We then describe the main characteristics of ecosystems and landscapes drawing from system theory and identify their key emerging properties—interdependence, complexity, self-organization, openness, adaptation, homeostasis, resilience, diversity and creation of order. The concept of Ecological Rationality—informed by such principles—is introduced and discussed. This can be defined as a form of thinking about actions, organizations and ultimate ends or values with a solid foundation on the science of ecology. Holism is its epistemological principle at the very foundation of this form of rationality.
... In summary, the usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in planning is reported by several studies and lies in its communicative power and in its capacity to be more easily understood by stakeholders and policymakers compared to other ecological concepts, thus facilitating collaborative planning, stakeholder engagement and interdisciplinary research, bridging gaps between different policy fields and ultimately increasing legitimacy of planning choices Moreno et al. 2014;Sitas et al. 2014;Bull et al. 2016;Wissen Hayek et al. 2016;Galler et al. 2016). Ecosystem Services thus appear to be a very valuable concept and operational tool to pursue ecological rationality in planning and, specifically in the EU context, to implement the integration between biodiversity conservation and planning put forward by the EU Biodiversity Strategy. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the insights from the previous chapters are synthesized and systematized in a conceptual framework for ecological rationality in spatial planning. At the centre of the framework, there is the landscape, upon which different drivers act at different scales. At a higher level, there are some main driving forces that determine identifiable general trends (megatrends). Sectoral and territorial policies (including spatial planning) in turn act on the landscape by mediating and modulating the effects of such drivers (contrasting, pandering them or a mix of the two) and driving territorial transformation themselves. Other elements of this frameworks comprise a knowledge base constituted by the integration of planning theories and methods, Land-Use Science and Political Ecology, in turn based on contribution from sectoral disciplines such as Natural Ecology (including Landscape Ecology as a sub-discipline), System Theory and the sets of social sciences dealing with mechanisms of social choices, institutions and political sciences. This knowledge base serves to inform planning both through enabling a better identification and understanding of the driving forces and to derive a set of guiding principles and criteria for ecological rationality in spatial planning. Such criteria, in turn, needs to be operationalized in planning practice into specific analytical tools and methodologies. In this chapter the first part of the framework is examined, i.e. the main driving forces underlying the processes of territorial transformation that are manifested and measurable. Two main analytical concepts are deployed to analyse and interpret the latter, i.e. the metabolic rift and the spatial fix. These concepts are elaborated and discussed as powerful analytics to interpret the main phenomena of landscape transformation in urban and rural areas: urbanization and suburbanization, agricultural intensification and abandonment of marginal agricultural areas.
... In summary, the usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in planning is reported by several studies and lies in its communicative power and in its capacity to be more easily understood by stakeholders and policymakers compared to other ecological concepts, thus facilitating collaborative planning, stakeholder engagement and interdisciplinary research, bridging gaps between different policy fields and ultimately increasing legitimacy of planning choices Moreno et al. 2014;Sitas et al. 2014;Bull et al. 2016;Wissen Hayek et al. 2016;Galler et al. 2016). Ecosystem Services thus appear to be a very valuable concept and operational tool to pursue ecological rationality in planning and, specifically in the EU context, to implement the integration between biodiversity conservation and planning put forward by the EU Biodiversity Strategy. ...
Chapter
Here we examine more in detail how the general processes described in the previous chapter have been developing in Europe and specifically in the European Union. Account is given of recent literature that has examined the main processes of landscape transformation in the EU: relentless urban expansion, agricultural intensification, and agricultural land abandonment. These processes are analysed and interpreted using the conceptual tools developed in the previous chapter. In Europe, urban growth rate exceeding population growth rate is linked to the ongoing processes of neo-liberalization of spatial planning, drawing from extensive empirical evidence from literature. Similarly, agricultural intensification and land abandonment are examined as two interlinked aspects of a joint process of reconfiguration of space under the contemporary dominating economic paradigm. The relevance for spatial planning of these processes is discussed and the necessity to bring back the politics in what has been termed the post-political planning is argued.