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Dodge's Social Information Processing Model (1993)

Dodge's Social Information Processing Model (1993)

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Article
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Abstract Adolescent depression is a prevailing international mental health concern as up to 27% of adolescents experience either subsyndromal depression or a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Depression in adolescence has been found to negatively impact current and future academic achievement, functioning, mental health, and quality of lif...

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... there are a multitude of models describing the development and maintenance of depression, only a few of these models originated from a developmental psychopath- ology perspective. One such model is Dodge's social infor- mation processing model (1993), which in its first iteration describes the development and maintenance of both de- pression and aggression. In this model, behavior is viewed as the product of a sequence of information processing steps. This sequence, which is precipitated by a situational stimulus, can be seen as a repeating, conscious, or uncon- scious process in social interactions. The social information processing model comprises five stages (Fig. ...
Context 2
... members are encouraged to adopt assertive be- havior over the other three types of behaviors, and therefore, more time is spent practicing and identifying signs of assertive behavior. Acting assertively allows indi- viduals to communicate more effectively and make progress towards their goals. While assertive behavior is encouraged, it is recognized that each type of behavior has both advantages and disadvantages. Individuals have reasons for choosing to enact various behaviors, includ- ing when they opt not to be assertive. Thus, to avoid resistance while promoting assertive behavior, the pros and cons of each type of behavior are discussed (Fig. 10). Additionally, if brought up by group members, the rare circumstances when acting assertively might not be the most appropriate form of behavior are discussed and ...
Context 3
... module begins with a discussion about the im- portance of showing interest in others and responding empathetically. Learning how to appropriately make contact with others across settings is an important skill that most people have to implement on a daily basis (Fig. 11). Learning to communicate effectively provides opportunities to establish positive relation- ships with others, which is often rewarding because it can lead to companionship or support. While the possible reward for making contact could be new re- lationships, success is not measured by the response of others. Instead, success is measured by the person's attempt to be assertive and communicate effectively. In the latter part of the module, group members have a chance to practice making contact using their own hypothetical ...

Citations

... Accordingly, effective programs that reduce elevated levels of depressive symptoms and prevent increases of depressive symptoms in adolescence have been developed and demonstrated to be effective (for a meta-analysis, see Merry et al., 2011). Only one depression prevention program, the school-based universal LARS&LISA program (Pössel, Horn, Seemann, & Hautzinger, 2004), has been developed in Germany and repeatedly evaluated in German trials (for a detailed description of the evaluation trials, see Pössel et al., 2018). This research includes a trial that used the same data as the present study (Wahl et al., 2014). ...
... LARS&LISA was delivered once a week over a 10-week period during regular school hours, with each session being composed of a 90-min block. The program was delivered to adolescents in gender-homogeneous groups, as adolescents may be hesitant to portray themselves authentically in front of peers of a different gender (Pössel, Horn, Seemann, & Hautzinger, 2004;Pössel et al., 2018). ...
... Teaching techniques also include role plays, transfer to everyday life, and positive reinforcement. A detailed description of the program, its theoretical basis, and previous literature supporting its effects is found in Pössel et al. (2018). ...
Article
Adolescent girls, independent of their migration background, and adolescent boys, specifically with a migration background, experience more depressive symptoms than boys without a migration background. Adolescent girls also benefit more from depression prevention programs than boys. However, no studies have examined the role of migration background on depression prevention. This cluster-randomized trial included 439 eighth-grade students (43.5% girls, 42.4% with a migration background) in Germany. Adolescents were randomized into either a 10-week universal prevention program or school-as-usual. Following our secondary analyses and as predicted, depressive symptoms decreased in girls in the prevention but not in the control group. Consistent with our hypotheses, boys did not benefit from the prevention program, nor was there a significant interaction between gender and migration background. Independent of condition, depressive symptoms increased in adolescents with a migration background. More research is needed to improve depression prevention for adolescent boys and in adolescents with a migration background.
... Below, we consider a range of empirically supported universal approaches that focus explicitly on improving social relationships. LARS&LISA 1 is a German programme based on the social information-processing model of social competence 28 . It has a dual cognitive and social focus, with social content aiming to foster adaptive social behaviour and increased social network use. ...
Article
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Interpersonal difficulties are often implicated in the onset of depressive disorders, and typically exacerbate depressive symptoms. This is particularly true for young people, given rapid changes in, and the increased importance of, their social relationships. The purpose of this narrative review was to identify empirically supported interventions that aim to prevent or treat depression in young people by facilitating improvements in their social environment. We conducted a search of controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of such interventions, published between 1980 and June 2020. Our literature search and interpretation of results was informed by consultations with clinical experts and youth consumers and advocates. A number of promising approaches were identified with respect to prevention and treatment. Preliminary evidence was identified suggesting that school- and Internet-based approaches present a viable means to prevent the worsening of depressive symptoms in young people. Notably, delivering interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training (IPT-AST) in schools appears to be a promising early intervention strategy for young people at risk of full-threshold depressive disorder. In terms of treating depressive disorders in young people, there is strong evidence for the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A), and preliminary evidence in favour of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT). Results are discussed with respect to recommendations for future research and practice.
... sex-specific) approach, and designed the intervention and its outcomes to be scalable and feasible such that all pupils could participate. Such an inclusive approach prevents isolation and stigmatization [94], yet it is unlikely an intervention works for all, despite promising findings from feasibility testing in a small number of schools (unpublished). Indeed, there is evidence that girls may respond better to PA interventions than boys [95], whereas high intensity PA may show greater cognitive benefits in boys [78]. ...
Article
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Background Physical activity (PA) may positively stimulate the brain, cognition and mental health during adolescence, a period of dynamic neurobiological development. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) or vigorous PA interventions are time-efficient, scalable and can be easily implemented in existing school curricula, yet their effects on cognitive, academic and mental health outcomes are unclear. The primary aim of the Fit to Study trial was to investigate whether a pragmatic and scalable HIIT-style VPA intervention delivered during school physical education (PE) could improve attainment in maths. The primary outcome has previously been reported and was null. Here, we report the effect of the intervention on prespecified secondary outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive performance, and mental health in young adolescents. Methods The Fit to Study cluster randomised controlled trial included Year 8 pupils ( n = 18,261, aged 12–13) from 104 secondary state schools in South/Mid-England. Schools were randomised into an intervention condition ( n = 52), in which PE teachers delivered an additional 10 min of VPA per PE lesson for one academic year (2017–2018), or into a “PE as usual” control condition. Secondary outcomes included assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), cognitive performance (executive functions, relational memory and processing speed) and mental health (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and self-esteem measures). The primary intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis used linear models and structural equation models with cluster-robust standard errors to test for intervention effects. A complier-average causal effect (CACE) was estimated using a two-stage least squares procedure. Results The HIIT-style VPA intervention did not significantly improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive performance (executive functions, relational memory or processed speed), or mental health (all p > 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed no significant moderation of intervention effects by sex, socioeconomic status or baseline fitness levels. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness were not significantly related to changes in cognitive or mental health outcomes. The trial was marked by high drop-out and low intervention compliance. Findings from the CACE analysis were in line with those from the ITT analysis. Conclusion The one-academic year HIIT-style VPA intervention delivered during regular school PE did not significantly improve fitness, cognitive performance or mental health, but these findings should be interpreted with caution given low implementation fidelity and high drop-out. Well-controlled, large-scale, school-based trials that examine the effectiveness of HIIT-style interventions to enhance cognitive and mental health outcomes are warranted. Trial registration ISRCTN registry, 15,730,512 . Trial protocol and analysis plan for primary outcome prospectively registered on 30th March 2017. ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03286725 . Secondary measures (focus of current manuscript) retrospectively registered on 18 September 2017.
... Interventioner som leds av skolans lärare kan bidra till ett hållbart sätt att förstärka kapaciteten i själva utbildningssystemet. Å andra sidan, och det kan ha att göra med typen av program och vad som ska läras ut, har det framkommit att i ett KBT-inriktat program med externa psykologer som programledare blev resultaten bättre än när de använde lärare som höll i det (Pössel et al., 2018). ...
... En nackdel med universella program kan vara att resurser som skulle ha kunnat läggas på barn med särskilda behov läggs på program för alla oavsett behov. Stigmatisering nämns ofta som ett problem i samband med preventionsprogram och fördelen med universella program är att deltagandet inte medför något stigma (Pössel et al., 2018). ...
... Ett vanligt problem är att man inte använder en studiedesign som kan ligga som underlag för att dra kausala slutsatser om orsakssamband. För att göra det behövs en studiedesign med kontrollgrupper (Pössel et al., 2018). ...
Research
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1980-talet har larmrapporterna om att unga mår psykiskt dåligt ökat nationellt såväl som i övriga västvärlden. Ungas psykiska ohälsa ar en av vara största folkhälsoutmaningar och bor tas på största allvar. Unga uppger att de upplever psykiska besvär i större utsträckning och de konsumerar mer sjukvård och psykofarmaka för dessa symtom. Dock har förekomsten av allvarligare psykiska sjukdomar, som till exempel schizofreni inte ökat och merparten av de unga har en positiv framtidstro. Mind publicerade år 2018 forskningsöversikten Unga mår allt sämre – eller? i samarbete med Länsförsäkringar med syftet att öka kunskap och medvetenhet om frågan samt nyansera debatten om ungas psykiska hälsa då det finns en risk att alarmistiska budskap påverkar unga negativt. Rap-porten konstaterar att det finns flera skäl till att allt fler unga uppger psykiska besvär. Vi har fått ett öppnare samtalsklimat, som gör att många unga är bättre på att signalera när livet är kämpigt. Att öppet kunna tala om sina problem bidrar också till att fler får hjälp inom vården. Forskningsöversikten vi-sade också att det idag finns en tendens att försöka hitta lösningarna till dåligt mående hos individen och att det riskerar att ge en slagsida åt be-handling och medikalisering. Att unga allt oftare upplever psykiska besvär signalerar att vi också behöver uppmärksamma de förändrade livsförutsättningar som unga har idag och stärka ungas förmåga att hantera tillvaron. Unga behöver närvarande och medmänskliga vuxna som utgår från den ungas behov och som lyssnar. Rapporten lyfter även vikten av att unga som behöver vård för sina psykiska besvär bör få ett mycket snabbare, mer individanpassat och koordinerat stöd. Denna internationella kartläggning, som genomförts av forskare vid Malmö universitet, bygger på en av rekommendationerna i föregående rapport genom att fokusera på initiativ för att utveckla barn och ungas färdigheter att hantera livets upp- och nedgångar och lära känna sina be-hov, styrkor och sårbarheter. Många länder genomför insatser för att främja barn och ungas psykiska hälsa och välbefinnande. I Sverige finns inte något motsvarande nationellt initiativ och psykisk hälsa är inte heller tydligt framskrivet i läroplanen. För att barn och unga ska utvecklas till kompententa och välmående vuxna, behöver de få de förutsättningar som krävs. Skolan är en bra plats för att ge en jämlik tillgång till livsviktig kunskap. Vi vet också att en god fysisk och psykisk hälsa bidrar till en fungerande skolgång och till livs-kvalitet i stort. Med denna internationella kartläggning vill vi sprida kunskap om initiativ och insatser samt lärdomar som man bör ta hänsyn till vid utveckling av arbetet för att främja psykisk hälsa och förebygga psykisk ohälsa bland barn och unga. Rapporten är också tänkt som ett underlag till dialog med beslutsfattare.
... We already know that the most frequently used intervention in the area of cyberbullying generally includes education on coping skills, empathy training, social skills, and communication training [65,66]. However, in line with similar previous findings [39], our results point out the usefulness of intervention programs aimed at increasing adolescents' well-being and to reduce psychological distress and, implicitly, cyberbullying, such as cognitive behavioral programs [66][67][68], along with social support [69] and positive family and peer relationships [70,71]. ...
Article
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Cyberbullying is a global problem with significant negative implications, especially among more vulnerable populations, such as adolescents. Previous research suggested that cyberbullying is significantly associated with depression, and anxiety seems to partially or fully mediate this relationship. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and the relationships between cyberbullying status (i.e., cyberbully, cyber victim, double role, or non-cyber), gender, and age. We also explored the mediating roles of state and trait anxiety on the relationship between adolescents' cyberbullying victimization, cyber-aggressiveness, and depression. Our sample consisted of 501 middle adolescents aged from 12 to 15 years (M = 14.00; SD = 0.80; 51.1% males). The results suggested no significant associations between participants' status, gender, or age. Mediation analyses suggested that the relationship between cyber-victimization, cyber-aggressiveness, and depression was mediated by state anxiety and not trait anxiety. We discuss the implications of the current findings in understanding cyberbullying's psychological consequences and their relevant practical implications for prevention and intervention programs.
... Ein Beispiel für solch ein Programm ist "Lust An Realistischer Sicht & Leichtigkeit Im Sozialen Alltag" (LARS&LISA; Pössel, Kontraindikationen von Präventionsprogrammen ist noch seltener als vergleichbare Forschung bezüglich Psychotherapie, es sind aber keine für Präventionsmaßnahmen spezifischen Kontraindikationen bekannt. Bei selektiven und indizierten Präventionsmaßnahmen wird gelegentlich darauf verwiesen, dass dieIdentifikation von Zielpersonen auch stigmatisierende Effekte auslösen können(Pössel, Smith & Alexander, 2018). Ansonsten kann angenommen werden, dass die Erkenntnisse aus der Psychotherapieforschung auf den Bereich der Prävention verallgemeinert werden können. ...
Chapter
Prävention beschreibt Interventionen, die vor dem erstmaligen Auftreten von psychischen Störungen erfolgen. Für Prävention spielen Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren eine zentrale Rolle, da präventive Maßnahmen entweder versuchen, diese Faktoren zu beeinflussen, oder für die Selektion einer Zielgruppe genutzt werden. In diesem Kapitel werden unterschiedliche Formen von Prävention (indiziert, selektiv, universell), deren Evidenz und Indikationen und Kontraindikationen diskutiert. Weiterhin werden das indizierte verhaltenstherapeutische Präventionsprogramm für expansives Problemverhalten (PEP), das sich an Eltern und Lehrer von Kindern mit ersten expansiven Verhaltensauffälligkeiten richtet, sowie das universelle kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutische Depressionspräventionsprogramm Lust An Realistischer Sicht & Leichtigkeit Im Sozialen Alltag (LARS & LISA) dargestellt.
... Second, the existing research in adults seems to demonstrate only a limited impact of CBM-I training on depressive symptoms (see for a meta-analysis Jones and Sharpe 2017). Until more favorable research supports the use of CBM-I training, clinicians might want to use more traditional cognitive behavioral techniques when focusing on cognitive errors (Pössel et al. 2018). ...
Article
Adolescence is a critical period in the development of depression. Hence, researching the applicability of cognitive theories in adolescents is crucial. Currently, much remains unknown about how cognitive variables proposed in different theories interplay with one another and whether gender differences in these associations exist. Attempting to integrate Beck’s cognitive model and the hopelessness model in adolescents, we conducted a 4-wave study using self-report instruments with 499 adolescents (mean ageTime1 = 15.33 years; SD = 0.75; 63.3% female; 73.7% White, 13.8% Black, 5.4% Latina/o, 4.4% mixed race/ethnicity, and 2.6% other) from a high school where almost one third of the students were eligible for free or reduced lunch. Using AMOS and PROCESS to calculate and compare four different theory-driven models, we found support for an integrated model in which the inferential styles proposed in the hopelessness model are located between cognitive errors and the cognitive triad from Beck’s cognitive theory. Further, the individual inferential styles and elements of the cognitive triad are associated differently with each other and other variables in the integrated cognitive model. The gender differences we found were limited and did not form a meaningful pattern. If replicated, the integrated model could be the basis to understand how therapeutic techniques developed to modify cognitive variables proposed in one model can impact cognitive constructs from a different theory. This might make cognitive psychotherapies for depression more effective, as it will allow clinicians to integrate therapeutic techniques based on either of the original theories in one theory-driven treatment approach.
Article
Based on former empirical studies and theoretical considerations the present study investigated, whether stress load and stress coping are influencing severity of depression over time in young girls. Stepwise multiple regression with different specific predictors was used to obtain the best predictive power. 148 girls with a mean age of 15 years where studied. 74 fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for major depression. Stress symptoms and stress coping was measured with SSKJ 3-8 and SVFKJ. The best predictor after a time interval of six months was severity of depression at first assessment with an explained variance of 62 %. Psychological stress load and destructive stress coping also added significantly to explained variance in depression severity. The results were interpreted with respect to treatment and prevention of depression in adolescents.
Article
In this paper, we show how the methods of systematic reviewing and meta-analysis can be used in conjunction with structural equation modeling to summarize the results of studies in a way that will facilitate the theory development and testing needed to advance prevention science. We begin with a high-level overview of the considerations that researchers need to address when using meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) and then discuss a research project that brings together theoretically important cognitive constructs related to depression to (a) show how these constructs are related, (b) test the direct and indirect effects of dysfunctional attitudes on depression, and (c) test the effects of study-level moderating variables. Our results suggest that the indirect effect of dysfunctional attitudes (via negative automatic thinking) on depression is two and a half times larger than the direct effect of dysfunctional attitudes on depression. Of the three study-level moderators tested, only sample recruitment method (clinical vs general vs mixed) yielded different patterns of results. The primary difference observed was that the dysfunctional attitudes → automatic thoughts path was less strong for clinical samples than it was for general and mixed samples. These results illustrate how MASEM can be used to compare theoretically derived models and predictions resulting in a richer understanding of both the empirical results and the theories underlying them.