Figure 9 - uploaded by Dom Cauche
Content may be subject to copyright.
Dmanissi, Georgia. 1.81 million years. Pre-Oldowan or Archaic Oldowan. Lithic industry in diverse rocks. 1 to 3: fl akes; 4: core; 5: chopper.

Dmanissi, Georgia. 1.81 million years. Pre-Oldowan or Archaic Oldowan. Lithic industry in diverse rocks. 1 to 3: fl akes; 4: core; 5: chopper.

Source publication
Chapter
Full-text available
Over recent years, many discoveries have renewed our knowledge about the oldest stone indutries and also about the benhaviour and lifestyle of the hominids that made them, not only in East Africa, but also in near East, in Trans Caucasia and in southern Europe. If the first tool-making hominids appear in East Africa, as early as 2.55 million years...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... abundant stone industry (Figure 9) was also found at Dmanissi, among the fauna and human remains. It is very archaic de Lumley, 2006;de Lumley et al., 2005). ...
Context 2
... short, the Dmanissi stone assemblage (Figure 9) is characterized by the following traits : ...

Citations

... In North Africa, most of the Early Pleistocene archaeological sites are related to wellestablished sequences of fossil shorelines, notably along the northern Atlantic coast near Casablanca (Morocco), as well as in other regions of Morocco and Algeria (Raynal et al, 2001;Barsky, 2014 Barsky and Cauche, 2009) in southern France, and Kozarnika cave (Sirakov et al, 2010) in Bulgaria. Also, lakeshore or river-shore environ¬ments are typical of the Early Pleistocene archaeological sites in Europe, such as the Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 sites (1.4-1.3 ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors discuss the geoarchaeological data indicating that the Oldowan-age assemblages, which are reported during the last years on the Taman peninsula, in the northwestern Caucasus, and in Dagestan, in the northeastern Caucasus, are found in the marine coast environment near the contact with the sea basin, with evidence for the presence of shallow water (in Muhkai II and other localities in Dagestan) or wave activity (in Kermek and other localities on Taman). The marine environment is not reported in any Early Pleistocene archaeological site in either Europe or southwestern Asia, or Africa. Moreover, the geological contexts identified in the Early Pleistocene localities in the Northern Caucasus correspond to typical conditions for the formation of eoliths or geofacts. The combined archaeological and geoarchaeological indicators strongly suggest that these North Caucasian assemblages most likely represent collections of naturally broken stones that were selected by researchers among fragments of the same rock that is present naturally in these areas.
... War es lange Zeit die vorrangige Meinung, dass die ersten scharfkantigen Steinwerkzeugproduktionen in Bezug zum Genus Homo standen, so bezeugen immer ältere Fossilfunde, dass auch schon frühere Homininen diese Technik beherrschten. Aufgrund des damaligen Wissensstandes wurden diese Funde einem "Preoldowan" zugeordnet(Leakey 1971, de Lumley et al. 2009).Diese technologische Entwicklung wurde dem Klimawechsel des Plio-Pleistozäns zugeschrieben, wo sich die bewaldeten Gebiete zu einer offenen Grassavanne ausbreiteten, die neue Anforderungen an die Nahrungsbeschaffung stellten(Leakey 1964). Aus marinen Sedimentkernen haben wir den Nachweis, dass sich die globalen Temperaturen stark absenkten. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Of all hominidae, Homo sapiens is unique in its social and cognitive complexity. It is the only hominid species still living today, and now populates the entire planet. However, it is still not clear when in our history the human lineage split from the homininae (i.e. apes). As a species, we are capable of creating diverse and complex technologies to overcome the limitations of our biology and almost all external environments. One way of understanding human evolution is by analyzing the development of the used stone tools. For this task, it is necessary to compare stone tools and the different techniques for their production of all homininae, including those of living non-human primates. This thesis attempts to give a chronological overview over the earliest preserved artefacts. Additionally, it tries to retrace the climatic conditions and changing environments, which did not only have impacts on the way tools were used, but also pushed our ancestors to complete the transition from prey to hunters.
... Исследователи стоянок указывают на принципиальные отличия каменных индустрий раннеашельских стоянок от каменных индустрий олдована. Если последние, несмотря на некоторые различия в расщеплении нуклеусов, связанные главным образом с использованием разного по качеству сырья, характеризуются наборами очень простых орудий, включающими мелкие отщепы, редкие слегка обработанные аморфные орудия из таких отщепов и обломков сырья (наиболее часты зубчато-выемчатые и клювовидные формы), нуклеусы-чопперы и более или менее сработанные отбойники (сфероиды/субсфероиды) [Bar-Yosef, 2006;Carbonell et al., 1999;Delagnes and Roche, 2005;Garcia et al., 2013;Harmand et al., 2015;Kimura, 2002;de Lumley et al., 2009;Roche et al., 2018;Schick, Toth, 2006;Semaw, 2000;Semaw et al., 2009;Shea, 2010;Stout et al., 2010;Texier, 2018;de la Torre and Mora, 2005;, то наборы орудий раннеашельских индустрий совершенно иные. Это стало совершенно понятно после новых раскопок многослойных стоянок с олдованскими и раннеашельскими материалами как в Олдувайском ущелье в Танзании, так и на других территориях, а также ревизии и более глубокого изучения каменных индустрий, использованных в своё время М. Лики для выделения так называемого развитого олдована (Developed Oldowan/DO), понимаемого ею как промежуточное звено в эволюционном развитии олдована к ашелю [Leakey, 1971;1975]. ...
Book
Full-text available
Возникновение раннего ашеля явилось важной вехой в развитии культуры. Создателями раннеашельских камен- ных индустрий, резко отличающихся по технолого-типологическим признакам от примитивных каменных индустрий олдована, были люди вида Homo erectus, продвинутые в когнитивном отношении и социальной организации. Эти ин- дустрии встречаются довольно редко, однако они известны в различных регионах Африки и Евразии. Вопрос о време- ни и месте их появления остаётся дискуссионным. Многие исследователи полагают, что впервые они возникли около 1,8 млн л. н. в Восточной Африке и оттуда в результате миграций или инфильтраций групп людей — носителей ран- неашельской технологии, в разное время появились и распространились на территории Евразии. Немало и других ис- следователей, по мнению которых, раннеашельские каменные индустрии могли быть автохтонными в различных ре- гионах не только Африки, но и Евразии, что, однако, не исключало возможной диффузии технологических иннова- ций. Я сторонник этой последней точки зрения, отражающей, на мой взгляд, наиболее естественный ход эволюции культуры и не противоречащей археологическим данным. Эти данные свидетельствуют, что в Кавказском регионе первые группы древнейших людей появились более 2 млн л. н., и они имели разные традиции изготовления каменных орудий: олдованские и раннеашельские. Благоприятные природно-климатические и экологические условия региона в раннем плейстоцене способствовали тому, что его южные (Южное Закавказье, северный склон Восточного Кавказа, Малый Кавказ) и северные (Западное Предкавказье) районы были заселены древнейшими людьми почти одновремен- но. В книге подробно исследуются шесть разновременных стоянок раннего ашеля Западного Предкавказья — Родни- ки 1–4, Богатыри/Синяя Балка и Кермек, расположенные на Таманском полуострове. Обобщаются имеющиеся в на- стоящее время обширные естественно-научные и археологические данные об этих стоянках. На основе палеомагнит- ных, биостратиграфических, палеонтологических и палинологических данных обосновывается весьма ранний возраст стоянок (от 2,1 до 1,0 млн л. н.) и их хронология, а также реконструируются палеоэкологические условия и стратегии жизнеобеспечения древнейших людей, заселивших степную зону России к северу от Большого Кавказа в раннем плейстоцене. Предваряет исследование стоянок глава о критериях и общепринятых в настоящее время определяющих технологических и типологических признаках каменных индустрий раннего ашеля, установленных многочисленными исследованиями стоянок с этими индустриями в разных регионах Африки и Евразии. Необходимость этого обзора продиктована тем, что критерии выделения раннего ашеля и его сущностные отличия от олдована иногда трактуются по-разному. Важное место в монографии занимает сравнительный анализ раннеашельских индустрий, а также обсуж- дение вопросов, связанных с происхождением раннего ашеля Западного Предкавказья и всего Кавказского региона и выявлением путей расселения раннеашельского населения в этом регионе. Книга может быть полезна археологам и историкам, студентам-гуманитариям и всем, кому интересен древнейший этап в развитии первобытного общества и культуры на территории России.
... As mentioned in the "Introduction" section, there are Palaeolithic assemblages without bifacial artefacts in Spain before 1 Ma, e.g. the Atapuerca Sima del Elefante where artefacts and fragmentary Homo sp. fossils were excavated in sediments dated to ca. 1.2-1.1 Ma Carbonell et al. 2008;de Lombera-Hermida et al. 2015;Huguet et al. 2017;Parés et al. 2006;Rosas et al. 2006), and at the eastern Andalusian sites of Barranco León-5, where tooth fragments assigned to Homo sp. were found, and Fuente Nueva-3, which dated from 1.4 to 1.2 Ma Barsky et al. 2015;Carbonell and Rodríguez 2006;de Lumley et al. 2009;Duval et al. 2012a, b;Fajardo 2009;Gibert et al. 1998;Gibert et al. 1999a, b;Gibert et al. 2001;Martínez-Navarro et al. 1997;Oms et al. 2000;Ribot et al. 2015;Toro-Moyano et al. 2003Toro Moyano et al. 2011;Toro-Moyano et al. 2013 Galliotti and Mussi 2018;Gibert et al. 2016;Goren-Inbar andGonen 2006: Goren-Inbar et al. 2000;Hovers and Braun 2009;Ollé et al. 2016;Sharon and Barsky 2016;Shea 2013Shea , 2016Vallverdú et al. 2014;Walker 2017). Detailed analysis of the various conjectures falls out with the scope of this discussion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic excavation and multidisciplinary research undertaken over three decades have deepened our understanding of the early Palaeolithic archaeology at Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar (Caravaca de la Cruz, Murcia, Spain). New results from biochronology and combined ESR and U-series dating corroborate previous magnetostratigraphy, placing the entire excavated sequence between the Jaramillo sub-chron and the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (i.e. ca. 990-772 thousand years ago (ka)); palaeontological and palynological findings reflect temperate environmental conditions. A bifacially flaked limestone hand axe was excavated 1 m below the top of the Pleistocene sequence. The Equus cf. altidens tooth that provided the ESR estimate was excavated 1 m below the hand axe. Throughout its 5-m-deep sedimentary sequence, small nodules, fragments and struck flakes make up the bulk of the Palaeolithic assemblage. Stratigraphical analysis points to undisturbed continuous sedimentary deposition above a layer of ashy sediment, encountered 4.5 m below the top of the Pleistocene sequence, which contained thermally altered bone and heat-shattered chert cores and flakes. Cueva Negra is among the earliest European sites with firm evidence of combustion.
... The indubitable records of both hominin and hyena activity are found at a number of the Lower Paleolithic caves and open-air sites; in particular, most Olduvai sites (1.9-1.6 Ma) in Tanzania (Domínguez -Rodrigo et al., 2007Organista et al., 2017), Swartkrans cave (1.8-1.5 Ma) in South Africa (Pickering et al., 2008), Dmanisi (1.88-1.75 Ma) in Georgia (Lordkipadnize et al., 2007), and Vallonnet cave (1.07-1 Ma) in France (de Lumley et al., 2009). Therefore, the presence of hyenas at Trlica could not exclude the presence of traces of hominin activity there. ...
... Basic and new advances in the study of early hominin activity with bones and taphonomic impacts on bones (Behrensmeyer, 1978;Potts and Shipman, 1981;Blumenshine et al., 1995Blumenshine et al., , 1996d'Errico and Villa, 1997;de Lumley et al., 2009;d'Errico, 2005, 2014;Gaudzinski-Windheuser et al., 2010;Van Kolfschoten et al., 2015a, 2015b; and many others) help distinguishing the anthropogenic marks from those of other origin with a high degree of accuracy, and we follow them. New advances in the study of micro-details of percussion and cut marks Gunz and Mitterecker, 2013;Maté-González et al., 2015;Arriaza et al., 2017), identification of carnivorous agents (Domínguez-Rodrigo et al., 2012;Pante et al., 2015;Sahle et al., 2017;Yravedra et al., 2017), and statistical data on experiments with bones (Bello et al., 2009(Bello et al., , 2011Blasco et al., 2014;Otárola-Castillo et al., 2018) also were very useful for the analysis of Trlica artifacts. ...
... Bone tools made from metacarpals of ungulates (horses, bovids and cervids) are known from many Paleolithic sites. Most researchers suggest that they were used as percussor to shape stones but others believe that such tools perhaps served for several purposes (e.g. during butchering and processing carcasses) (see Plummer, 2004;de Lumley et al., 2009;Backwell and d'Errico, 2014). Metapodials, used mainly as percussors and hammers, are numerous at the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen 'Spear Horizon', Germany; most used to shape stone, some to break marrow bones, and some were multi-purpose tools; some were broken for marrow before their short use as tools (Van Kolfschoten et al., 2015b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Problems of dispersals of early hominins into Europe are widely discussed. In the Early Pleistocene, the dispersal of mammals and humans from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe into the south of Western Europe passed mostly through the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Data on evolution and distribution of mammal faunas provide a solid basis for correlation and estimation of main dispersal events. In this paper authors made an attempt to analyze the paleobiogeographical aspects of possible hominin dispersals in the mid-Early Pleistocene of the Mediterranean in the context of a broad paleozoogeographical and paleoecological approach to addressing this issue. The study of the Early Pleistocene Trlica TRL11–10 mammal fauna of Trlica cave in Montenegro in the Central Balkans offers valuable information on biotic events in the region, migratory pathways and faunal transformations against a background of alternating environmental conditions. A recent discovery of several unique bones amongst other fossil mammalian remains excavated between 2010 and 2014 from the Trlica TRL11–10 level is of particular interest. The analysis of the assemblage of two large and two small bone artifacts suggests their anthropogenic nature. The Trlica TRL11–10 artifacts may constitute the first evidence of the initial ‘Peopling events’ in Mediterranean Europe. The artifacts are associated with a very diverse TRL11–10 fauna that includes 34 species of both small and large mammals and belongs to the late Early Pleistocene within the interval 1.8–1.5 Ma, Donau/Eburonian (MIS 63–51). The article emphasizes the close relationship between the early human dispersals and the evolution of biota and the importance of a holistic approach to the study of the problem of dispersals. Paleobiogeographic evidence confirms the possibility of the arrival of early hominins in the Balkans in the mid-Early Pleistocene, prior to 1.5 Ma, very likely closer to the Olduvai time.
... TRL11-10 ñîäåðaeèò ïîçäíåâèëëàôðàíêñêóþ ôàóíó èíòåðâà-ëà 1,8-1,5 ìëí ëåò íàçàä.  Àôðèêå â ýòî âðåìÿ êîñòÿíûå îðóäèÿ áûëè îáû÷íûì èíâåíòàðåì ãî-ìèíèí, êîòîðûé íàõîäÿò ñ ãàëå÷íî-îòùåïîâîé êóëüòóðîé êëàññè÷åñêîãî îëäóâàÿ (1,9-1,6 ìëí ëåò íàçàä) [de Lumley et al., 2009]. Íî â Åâðîïå àðõåî-ëîãè÷åñêèõ ñâèäåòåëüñòâ òàêîãî âîçðàñòà ìàëî: íà Áàëêàíàõ -ïåùåðà Êîçàðíèêà (íèaeíèå ñëîè 13-11à, 1,6-1,4 ìëí ëåò íàçàä) â Áîëãàðèè [Sirakov et al., 2010], à çàïàäíåå -êàðñòîâîå ìåñòîíàõîaeäåíèå Ïèððî-Íîðä (1,6-1,3 ìëí ëåò íàçàä) â Èòàëèè [Arzarello et al., 2007;Pavia et al., 2012]. ...
... Êðóïíûå êîñòÿíûå óäàðíîðóáÿùèå îðóäèÿ è ðåòóøåðû [heavy-duty tools: Leaky, 1971] õàðàêòåðíû äëÿ ðàííåïàëåî-ëèòè÷åñêèõ êóëüòóð Àôðèêè è Åâðîïû. Öåëûå êî-ñòè èëè èõ ôðàãìåíòû ÷àñòî èñïîëüçîâàëèñü äëÿ îááèâàíèÿ êàìíåé è ïðèäàíèÿ ôîðìû êàìåííûì îðóäèÿì, à òàêaeå äëÿ ðàçäåëêè òóø [Plummer, 2004;Backwell, d'Errico, 2004de Lumley et al., 2009]. ...
... Ãîìèíèíû è ãèãàíòñêèå ãèåíû ïðåòåíäîâàëè íà îäíè è òå aeå ïåùåðû íå òîëüêî íà Áàëêàíàõ. Õîðîøèì ïðèìåðîì ñëåäîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ õèùíèêîâ è ðàííèõ ëþäåé â îäíîé ïåùåðå ñëóaeèò ìåñòîíà-õîaeäåíèå Âàëëîíå âî Ôðàíöèè [ñì.: de Lumley et al., 2009]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The study of the Early Pleistocene of the Balkan Peninsula is of particular interest with regard to the problem of dispersal of ancient Homo in Eurasia and their first arrival into Europe. Materials and methods. The article presents first description of the large artifacts from the multilayered cave site Trlica near Pljevlja in Montenegro. They were found in the lower layers 11 and 10 and are associated with abundant remains of Late Villafranchian mammal fauna of the time interval 1.8–1.5 Ma. Results and conclusion. Based on morphological, taphonomic and tracological analyses, we presumably identified these artifacts as bone tools of early hominins, a “percussor” and a “retoucher”. This find provides additional information about material culture, adaptive behaviour and relationships of early hominins. The Trlica bone tools, probably the oldest in Europe, are also the earliest evidence of possible use of such tools during butchering and processing of carcasses and skins in the region. They are in some ways similar to bone tools known from the Lower Palaeolithic of Africa (Olduvai and Swartkrans) and assume the relationship of the Balkan and African hominins. The composition of TRL11-10 fauna and the presence of migrants indicate that occupation of the Balkans by hominins occurred in the middle of the Early Pleistocene, probably soon after the Olduvai paleomagnetic episode.
... Other researchers, such as de Lumley et al. (2009), have suggested using the term "Pre-Oldowan" or "Archaic Oldowan" for many of the sites that are older than ∼1.9 Mya. The stone assemblages from these sites (e.g. ...
... The spread of hominins out of the African continent was accomplished by 1.8 Mya by an early form of Homo erectus equipped with an Oldowan technology, as evidenced by the site of Dmanisi in the Georgian Caucasus (Lordkipanidze et al. 2013). Subsequent sites are evident in East Asia in China's Nihewan Basin by about 1.7 Mya (Ao et al. 2013), and in western Europe at Orce, Spain, by about 1.2 Mya (de Lumley et al., 2009;Fajardo, 2009). By the third arid phase, around 1 Mya, later Homo erectus appears to have established populations in many parts of tropical and temperate Africa and Eurasia. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the empirical evidence for the cognitive abilities of early hominins of the Oldowan Industrial Complex (c. ≥2.6 to 1.4 Mya) on the African continent. It profiles various researchers’ approaches to and inferences about the cognitive abilities of Oldowan (Mode 1) toolmakers, based on the excavated archaeological evidence, primate models, experimental archaeology and neuroimaging techniques. Although there is a great deal of variation with regard to how to interpret such evidence, a variety of archaeological and palaeoneurological evidence indicates that Oldowan hominins represent a stage of technological and cognitive complexity not seen in modern great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans), but transitional between a modern ape-like cognition and that of later Homo (erectus, heidelbergensis, sapiens). Prevailing evidence and evolutionary models suggest that this new evolutionary stage entailed the growing elaboration of a problem-solving, technological niche that incorporated manufactured tools as a critical component of adaptation, especially to enhance food procurement and processing, as well as enhancements and greater complexity in social behaviours and communication.
... Such assemblage comparison can be used to explain how technology develops at one locality through time: how do production behaviors vary between the Oldowan and Developed Oldowan at Olduvai Gorge? Or they can be used to assess how technology varies across space: how do "Oldowan" assemblages from different parts of the world deviate from each other in terms of production behaviors (for example, compared to [80][81][82][83][84])? Do Oldowan production behaviors statistically precede those utilized in the Acheulian at Olduvai Gorge, or does Homo erectus begin an entirely new process of stone tool production? Such analyses would provide a sister-strategy to addressing cladistic change in core shape [85], for instance, by focusing on flake characteristics and core reduction in addition to the shape of the core. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool procurement by utilizing high-cost materials more efficiently than is expected and low-cost materials in an inefficient manner.
... These materials present typical geofact assemblages (see discussion in Doronichev, 2008; Doronichev and Golovanova, 2010). Between 1.0 Ma and 780 ka (during the Jaramillo subchron), evidence for the hominin occupation is now well documented in the Mediterranean Europe, in the Terrassa site in Spain, Le Vallonnet Cave in France and Ca'Belvedere-di-Monte Poggiolo in Italy dated to about 1.0 Ma (de Lumley et al., 2009; Arzarello and Peretto, 2010), and a few other Italian sites (Arce, Colle Marino, Fontana Liri) whose age is evaluated to be greater than 780 ka (Cauche et al., 2004). Importantly, during this period, the earliest hominin occupations appear in more northern areas of continental Europe (e.g., Pont-de-Lavaud and Lunery sites in the Loire River Basin, France, dated to c. 1.1 Ma; Despri ee et al., 2010) and in the Britain, in Happisburgh and Pakefield, dated to the late Early Pleistocene (1.0e0.78 ...
... These also indicate that the coreeflake industry developed during this period into the coreeflake-tool industry, which are defined by some authors as Pre-Oldowan and Oldowan, respectively. The latter is distinguished with the increase in retouched flakes and the appearance of variable intentionally retouched formal tools made on small flakes, but lacks true Acheulean LCTs (de Lumley et al., 2009; Doronichev and Golovanova, 2010). ...
... The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages now available for some sites (La Polledrara, Torre in Pietra, and others) suggest that most of the Acheulean assemblages in central Italy are dated within a narrow time window between 400 and 310 ka, which covers the Holsteinian interglacial period, from MIS 11 to MIS 9 (between 427 and 300 ka); the Ceprano calvarium attributed to H. heidelbergensis and now dated c. 350 ka falls into the same time period (Nomade et al., 2011). The site of Terra Amata in southern France dated to MIS 11 also shows one of the earliest evidence of Acheulean in the central Mediterranean (de Lumley, 2009, 2011). Importantly, Acheulean handaxes only become a significant part of the tool inventory (e.g., in Torre in Pietra almost 1/3 of tools are handaxes) around 300 ka, at about the time that the Levallois technique became fully developed in Italy (at Rosaneto; Santonja and Villa, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The author discuss data indicating that the non-handaxe (non-Acheulean) tradition of small tools and core-choppers was present in parts of West Eurasia during the early Middle Pleistocene – the period marked by a wide spread of Acheulean in West Asia and West Europe – and survived until 400–300 ka and perhaps later in some areas, beyond the area of the maximum Acheulean distribution, in the Danube basin and the Balkans, and to a limited extent north of the Danube basin in Central Europe, and in the south of Russian plain and Northern Caucasus in Eastern Europe. The author defines these Middle Pleistocene assemblages, which are totally lacking true Acheulean handaxes and debitage resulted from large flake or Levallois knapping technologies, as the “Pre-Mousterian industrial complex”. The assemblages of Pre-Mousterian complex are variable due to their functional differentiation and other reasons, but generally comprise the next three components: (1) simple (mostly primary and orthogonal, and also rare unipolar and centripetal) cores with short reduction sequences, consisting of flaking of 1–3 flakes from one platform, followed by the core rotation or discard; (2) flake-tools, which are made mostly (but not exclusively) on small-sized flakes with beveled platforms and include varieties of simple side-scrapers, denticulates, notches, thick end-scrapers, awls, and convergent pieces, as well as small numbers of tools with flat ventral retouch or bifacial retouched edges; and (3) large-sized tools are always present and include mostly unifacial choppers, and more rare chopping-tools and proto-bifaces (or pointed choppers) with partial bifacial processing. The author discuss that the hominids that produced lithic industries of Pre-Mousterian complex acquired a high behavioural plasticity to settle in most uncomfortable (within Western Eurasia) forested and forest-steppe environments with cold winters in Central and Eastern Europe. The hominids developed tool inventories well suited for bone- and woodworking, made real wooden throwing spears and composite tools with wooden hafts that are found in Schöningen. In contrast to the Acheulean complex in West Europe and West Asia, assemblages of Pre-Mousterian complex do not show a transition (temporally being placed now during MIS 8–MIS 7, between c. 300–200 ka in both the regions) toward the Middle Palaeolithic or Mousterian technology. In contrast to the Acheulean to Middle Palaeolithic transition, which is associated with final neanderthalization of H. heidelbergensis and the origin of H. neanderthalensis, the assemblages of Pre-Mousterian complex disappear with the spread of Early Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals.
... На Карпатах и в бассейне Дуная индустрии премустьерского комплекса представлены слоем VI стоянки Королево I (около 550-350 тыс. л. н.) на Украине [Koulakovska, Usik, Haesaerts, 2010], многослойной стоянкой Vértesszöllös (от 300-200 тыс. л. н. и ранее) в Венгрии, мастерской по расщеплению камня Dealul Guran (400-300 тыс. ...