Divisions of gait cycle with typical muscle activity patterns [50, 51]. The gluteus maximus and hamstrings are hip extensors. The hamstrings are active at the IC in order to prevent hyperextension of the knee. The quadriceps are knee extensors helping in control of knee flexion. The iliopsoas is a hip flexor and active during the initial and mid-swing phase. Tibialis anterior are active throughout the swing phase and the loading response in order to control the ankle plantarflexion during the loading response and initial swing and maintain the ankle dorsiflexion during the late swing phase. Triceps surae are active during late mid-stance and terminal stance in order to control dorsiflexion during the corresponding periods

Divisions of gait cycle with typical muscle activity patterns [50, 51]. The gluteus maximus and hamstrings are hip extensors. The hamstrings are active at the IC in order to prevent hyperextension of the knee. The quadriceps are knee extensors helping in control of knee flexion. The iliopsoas is a hip flexor and active during the initial and mid-swing phase. Tibialis anterior are active throughout the swing phase and the loading response in order to control the ankle plantarflexion during the loading response and initial swing and maintain the ankle dorsiflexion during the late swing phase. Triceps surae are active during late mid-stance and terminal stance in order to control dorsiflexion during the corresponding periods

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Improper manipulation of heavy objects can result in hard stresses (tension, compression and shear) throughout the human body parts, especially in the low-back spine. Biomechanics specialists state that injuries that occur in this area may address muscle tissue, joint tissues and intervertebral disc tissues. The effect of a carried load on kinemati...

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... Once the human motion is recognized, the control algorithm should follow the human motion intention [21], so that the robot makes the motion in line with the human body [22,23]. The dynamical model, such as PID and fuzzy PID algorithms, are not introduced in the traditional control strategies [24]. Some studies directly model the exoskeleton without introducing human-robot interaction forces into the model, which is incomplete. ...
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