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Distribution of the intensity of UV radiation stress on photosynthesis for the globally important picophytoplankton, Prochlorococcus. The metric for UV radiation stress (colour bar) reflects the combined effect of both incident UV radiation and transparency of the ocean on biologically effective irradiance in the water column (1 = moderate stress). The map shows that the combination of these stress factors is greatest in the subtropical Pacific Ocean. The rectangles delimit areas where the impact of this UV radiation on primary productivity was modeled over the full water column, including the effects of inhibition, which lowered the model estimates of average picophytoplankton production in this region by ∼20%. After Neale and Thomas. 75

Distribution of the intensity of UV radiation stress on photosynthesis for the globally important picophytoplankton, Prochlorococcus. The metric for UV radiation stress (colour bar) reflects the combined effect of both incident UV radiation and transparency of the ocean on biologically effective irradiance in the water column (1 = moderate stress). The map shows that the combination of these stress factors is greatest in the subtropical Pacific Ocean. The rectangles delimit areas where the impact of this UV radiation on primary productivity was modeled over the full water column, including the effects of inhibition, which lowered the model estimates of average picophytoplankton production in this region by ∼20%. After Neale and Thomas. 75

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of current knowledge about effects of UV radiation in inland and oceanic waters related to stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

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... of UV radiation for biological processes such as the inhibition of photosynthesis (Fig. 4). Biological weighting functions have been estimated for different growth irradiances and temperatures for each key species, thus enabling the scaling of exposure to UV radiation for inhibition of each species' photosynthetic activity over the global ocean (Fig. 5). Representative areas of the Pacific Ocean were selected to perform full depthintegrated model estimates of primary productivity. Model estimates that included the effects of full-spectrum UV (UV-B and UV-A) radiation were around 20% lower than when UV radiation effects were omitted. 75 Increased UV-B radiation associated with severe ...
Context 2
... dependent, and better weighting functions that quantify the importance of spectral composition of UV radiation, as well as the exposure-response functions, have the potential to substantially improve the accuracy of our estimates of UV radiation effects in nature and the ability to scale results to broader geographic and temporal windows (Fig. 5). Similarly, while experiments with artificial UV lamps can be useful for elucidating some mechanisms of damage by UV radiation and response, more UV-exposure experiments with natural sunlight and monitoring data, including high resolution UV radiation, are essential to understanding the ultimate overall UV radiation effects on aquatic ...

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... Seaweeds can be a sustainable source of natural metabolites due to their huge biodiversity and nutritional and chemical composition, these organisms are sessile and inhabit areas under constant stressing environmental factors; consequently, many species of seaweeds have developed the biosynthesis of compounds as such proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids and vitamins and secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids and pigments, which them represent great candidates for industrial applications [44,45]. ...
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Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the primary etiological agent responsible for developing cutaneous malignancies. Avoiding excessive radiation exposure, especially by high-risk groups, is recommended to prevent UV-induced photo-pathologies. However, optimal sun exposure is essential for the healthy synthesis of about 90% of vitamin D levels in the body. Insufficient exposure to UV-B is linked to vitamin D deficiency in humans. Therefore, optimal sun exposure is necessary for maintaining a normal state of homeostasis in the skin. Humans worldwide face a major existential threat because of climate change which has already shown its effects in several ways. Over the last 4 to 5 decades, increased incidences in skin cancer cases have led international health organizations to develop strong sun protection measures. However, at the same time, a growing concern about vitamin D deficiency is creating a kind of exposure dilemma. Current knowledge of UV exposure to skin outweighs the adverse effects than the beneficial roles it offers to the body, necessitating a correct public health recommendation on optimal sun exposure. Following an appropriate recommendation on optimal sun exposure will lead to positive outcomes in protecting humans against the adverse effects of strict recommendations on sun protection measures. In this short review, we spotlight the ambivalent health effects of UV exposure and how ozone layer depletion has influenced these effects of UVR. Further, our aim remains to explore how to lead towards a balanced recommendation on sun protection measures to prevent the spurt of diseases due to inadequate exposure to UV-B.
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