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Distribution of risk factors for hypertension and knowledge of risk factors in the at-risk population (n = 298)

Distribution of risk factors for hypertension and knowledge of risk factors in the at-risk population (n = 298)

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Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution...

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Context 1
... 120 (100-130) mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure 70 (60-70), 70 (70-80), 70 (65-80), and 70 (70-80) mmHg, respectively (Figure 1). High blood pressure was observed in more than 25% of the population, with 12% being prehy- pertensive and 15% being hypertensive (Table 2). A higher range of systolic blood pressure was observed in individuals aged 50-60 years and those aged 60 years and older than in individuals aged younger than 40 years. ...
Context 2
... 20% of participants had had their blood pressure checked in the previous year. Table 2 summarizes risk factor exposure in the study sample and knowledge about risk factors in the at-risk population. ...
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... total, 67.79% of participants were current smokers, 6.71% were exsmokers and 23.18% were nonsmokers, as shown in Figure 3. Among the current smokers, 38.12% did not know that smoking was a risk factor for hypertension (Table 2). ...
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... and 11.74% had a BMI of 23-25. Forty percent of overweight individuals did not know that being overweight is a risk factor for hypertension (Table 2). ...
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... alcohol consumption, 49.33% of the sample admitted to being current drinkers and 12.75% reported being exdrinkers ( Figure 3). More than 40% did not know that alcohol is a risk factor for hypertension (Table 2). ...
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... than 40% of participants were over 40 years of age. However, more than half of this age group did not know that advancing age is a risk factor for hypertension (Table 2). ...
Context 7
... of the hypertensive (84.44%) and prehy- pertensive (72.97%) participants did not know that they had hypertension risk. (Table 2). Most (77.54%) did not know that hypertension is a non-communicable disease or that it needs lifelong treatment (67.39%). ...
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... (77.54%) did not know that hypertension is a non-communicable disease or that it needs lifelong treatment (67.39%). About half of the sample population lacked disease-specific knowledge about hyperten- sion, such as values in the normal and high blood pressure range or the risk factors for hypertension, such as a high-salt diet, excess coffee and tea, and a stressful lifestyle (Table 2). Most members of the Karen community had a physically active occupation. ...
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... identified a considerable prevalence of prehyperten- sion and prediabetes in the Karen community. 21,22 Moreover, awareness of hypertension among already hypertensive individuals was very poor ( Table 2). The high smoking rate identified could lead to hypertension and a substantial cardiovascular disease burden in the near future. ...

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... We noted the important finding that 27.8% of the current study participants were hypertensive, a higher percentage than that of the host country (24.7%) and country of origin (26.4%) [1]. Hypertension was also more prevalent than in another study conducted among Shan migrant workers in Northern Thailand in 2011 (23.5%), comparable with the prevalence of hypertension among the Karen ethnic minority in Thailand (27.0%) and lower than that of South East Asian immigrants in the United States (29.1%) [17][18][19]. Agerelated increases in blood pressure owing to vascular aging have been observed in almost every population, and we also noted that the increasing age of the study participants was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension [20,21]. Distinct gender differences in the incidence and severity of hypertension were well-established, and hypertension was more common in men than women [22,23]. ...
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... Self-care practice includes taking prescribed medications, consumption of low salt and low fat diet, quit smoking, limiting alcohol, reducing stress and weight, regular physical exercise, self-monitoring of blood pressure, and regular healthcare visits. 14 Consumption of a combination of diets such as fruits, vegetables, and lowfat dairy products lowers systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 5.5 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3 mmHg. 15 Salt intake not more than 2.4 g per day lowers SBP by 2-8 mmHg. ...
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... A similar observational study with the educational intervention was conducted on a segment of the Irish population in Galway in 2017 [11] which resulted in considerable improvement of community knowledge and awareness. In this study, the baseline awareness levels regarding health risks and symptoms of hypertension comparable with a number of similar studies conducted previously in Ireland [11,20] and in other countries like Thailand and Jordan [21,22] where the community having sufficient knowledge was less than 50%. The results of this study reveal that more than 75% of the participants were unaware of the significance of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ...
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... Information on patients' knowledge and awareness of hypertension may represent the extent of their health literacy [13]. Consequently, assessment and understanding of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) factors in chronic diseases like hypertension are essential. ...
... By contrast, knowledge of patients receiving standard care remained steady. It is interesting to note that baseline knowledge level in the present study was not in accordance with that of some countries as those studies reported moderate level of knowledge regarding hypertension [13,14,23]. This finding provided evidence highlighting the need for reviewing the existing clinical services in community pharmacists as the standard services were not able to improve patients' health literacy. ...
... This leads to poor health outcomes and health inequalities (Aboumatar et al., 2013;Al Sayah et al., 2013;Bostock & Steptoe, 2012). Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between low HL and increased hospital admissions and readmissions (Mitchell et al., 2012); poorer medication adherence and increased adverse medication events (Lindquist et al., 2012); less participation in prevention activities (von Wagner et al., 2007;World Health Organization, 1998); higher prevalence of health risk factors (Aung et al., 2012;Yamashita, & Kart, 2011); poorer self-management of chronic diseases and poorer disease outcomes (Schillinger et al., 2002); less effective communication with health care professionals (Schillinger et al., 2004); increased health care costs (Herndon et al., 2011); lower functional status (Wolf et al., 2005); and poorer overall health status (Howard et al., 2006;Tokuda et al., 2009), including increased mortality (Sudore et al., 2006). Studies have also suggested that the lack of HL significantly increases the burden of disease and reinforces health and economic inequalities Institute of Medicine, 2009; Institute of Medicine, 2011a; Institute of Medicine, 2011b; Poureslami et al., 2017). ...
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... People are increasingly given responsibility for own their health and, consequently, health literacy (HL) has become a topic of growing interest. Research has demonstrated associations between low functional HL (i.e., health-related reading and numeracy ability) and poor health-related outcomes, such as increased hospital admissions and readmissions Chen et al., 2013;Choet et al., 2008;Scott et al., 2002), less participation in preventive activities (Adams et al., 2013;Thomson & Hoffman-Goetz, 2012;von Wagner et al., 2007), poorer self-management of chronic conditions (Aung et al., 2012;Gazmararian et al., 2003;Williams et al., 1998), poorer disease outcomes (Peterson et al., 2011;Schillinger et al., 2002;Yamashita & Kart, 2011), lower functional status (Wolf et al., 2005), and increased mortality (Bostock & Steptoe, 2012;Peterson et al., 2009;Sudore et al., 2006). More recently, using more dynamic and multidimensional measures of HL, associations have also been found with screening behavior, diabetes control, and patients' per-ceptions of quality of life (Jovanić et al., 2018;O'Hara et al., 2018;Olesen et al., 2017). ...
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Background: The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) is a multidimensional generic questionnaire developed to capture a wide range of health literacy needs. There is a need for validation evidence for the Norwegian version of the HLQ (N-HLQ). Objective: The present study tested an initial version of the Norwegian HLQ by exploring its utility and construct validity among a group of nursing students. Methods: A pre-test survey was performed in participants (N = 18) who were asked to consider every item in the N-HLQ (44 items across nine scales). The N-HLQ was then administered to 368 respondents. Scale consistency was identified and extracted in a series of factor analyses (principal component analysis [PCA] with oblimin rotation) demanding a nine-dimension solution performed on randomly drawn 50% of the samples obtained by bootstrapping. Correlations between the nine factors obtained in the 13-factor PCA and the scale scores computed by the scale scoring syntaxes provided by the authors of the original HLQ were estimated. Key results: The pre-test survey did not result in the need to rephrase items. The internal consistency of the nine HLQ scales was high, ranging from 0.81 to 0.72. The best fit for reproduction of the scales from the original HLQ was found for these dimensions: "1. feeling understood and supported by health care providers," "2. having sufficient information to manage my health," and "3. actively managing my health." For the dimensions "7. navigating in the healthcare system" and "8. ability to find good health information," a rather high degree of overlap was found, as indicated by relatively low differences between mean highest correlations and mean next-highest correlations. Conclusions: Despite some possible overlap between dimensions 7 and 8, the N-HLQ appeared relatively robust. Thus, this study's results contribute to the evidence validation base for the N-HLQ in Norwegian populations. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2020;4(4):e190-e199.] PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: This study tested the Norwegian version of the Health Literacy Questionnaire. The questionnaire (44 items across nine scales) was completed by 368 nursing students. Despite some overlap between scale 7 ("navigating in the health care system") and scale 8 ("ability to find good health information"), the questionnaire appears to serve as a good measurement for health literacy in the Norwegian population.
... Aung and colleagues (2012) research revealed that some hypertension risk factors are modifiable such as diet, smoking, and overweight, while some are not modifiable, such as genetic predisposition and old age. For this reason, changing those modifiable risk factors may result in a decreased burden of hypertension, and people need to know that they are susceptible to develop hypertension to be able to start voluntary modifications in their lifestyle [8]. ...
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Introduction This study was conducted to explore the three-dimensioned knowledge level of hypertension risk factors (i.e. a three parts questionnaire in addition to the demographic section that discusses in each a dimension of hypertension-related knowledge which is hypertension high-risk factors dimension, diet modifications dimension, and lifestyle behavior modifications dimension to either prevent or control hypertension), the needed diet and lifestyle modifications to either cope with or prevent hypertension among the study participants. The study also examined the significance of the relationship between the two groups and their knowledge of hypertension three dimensions as well as their age, gender, family history, education, and participants' occupation. Methodology In this cross-sectional study, a disproportionate stratified random sampling was used which stratified the sample into two groups i.e. hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals between 30 and 50 years old from the community of the city of Abha, Saudi Arabia. A developed modified three-dimensioned self-administered online questionnaire was used which was tested afterward for reliability and validity. For this study, the sample size is 384 while the response rate achieved is 60.4% where the data was collected within a timeframe of two weeks. Results The respondents had a high level of knowledge regarding the risk factors, diet modifications, and lifestyle modifications. Both groups have the same knowledge level that does not differ significantly. Gender is not a factor of significance for hypertension, but a family history of hypertension shows a significant relationship among the two groups. Age, education, and occupation do not relate significantly among both groups. Conclusion The results might be contributed to the participants' high educational level as well as the fact that a lot of them have a family history of hypertension.