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1 Distribution of beef cows in Scotland, 1990. (Number per ha of agricultural land) 

1 Distribution of beef cows in Scotland, 1990. (Number per ha of agricultural land) 

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This review aimed to clarify the benefits and detrimental effects of cattle on a range of unimproved habitats, wildlife species and on the landscape in Scotland. Specifically the review aimed to: a) collate existing published and unpublished information on the impact of cattle on specific unimproved habitats, wildlife species and the landscape; b)...

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Context 1
... includes beef cows, beef bulls, and other beef cattle and assumes that 1 LU is the equivalent of one adult dairy cow. Figure 2.5 shows the change, by parish, in total beef cattle livestock units. The highest densities of beef cows are in the areas lying between the lowland and hill areas, the traditional 'upland' farms. ...
Context 2
... broadly similar pattern is evident in the maps of all beef cattle livestock units, except that the densities are also high were there are significant numbers of fattening cattle eg in the North East of Scotland. It is difficult to see a clear spatial pattern in the change in beef cattle livestock units between 1990 and 2004 ( Figure 2.5), but parishes where there has been an increase in numbers appear to be mainly in the upland fringe. ...
Context 3
... the impact of defoliation on the vegetation is at the individual plant level, but the foraging choices that the animal makes within a plant community and its ranging behaviour between plant communities also determines the impact. This means that an understanding of cattle grazing behaviour is required across a number of geographical scales (see Figure 2.2 for a diagrammatic representation of these scales). Different large herbivores have different impacts on vegetation by virtue of their different feeding methods associated with their size and shape of mouth. ...
Context 4
... by knowing the digestibility of the diet selected from different plant communities, based on research, the plant community patch on which the cattle beast will graze can be predicted. Figure 2.3 shows the pattern of digestibility throughout the year for some of the major plant communities of the uplands assuming that available biomass is not limiting. ...
Context 5
... Nardus has a higher biomass but a much lower digestibility than the Agrostis/Festuca component of the community such that the intake of digestible nutrients from the Agrostis/Festuca component is much higher than that of Nardus. The diet selected by cattle is predominantly Agrostis/Festuca but the proportion of Nardus in the diet increases as the availability of the biomass of Agrostis/Festuca declines (Figure 2.4). Because of the feeding method of cattle associated with the size and shape of its mouth, cattle are much less selective in their feeding behaviour than other large herbivores when selecting a diet with an intimate mix of species within a plant community. ...
Context 6
... stricta is the least palatable of the acid grassland species with a high silica content (Armstrong, 1996). Cattle are more effective than sheep at controlling Nardus stricta (mat-grass) of Nardus stricta- Galium saxatile grassland (U5), because they are less selective and consume a higher proportion of this species as they forage ( Grant et al., 1985;1987;Welch, 1986; see also Chapter 2 Figure 2.4). In contrast, intensive grazing by sheep will increase the proportion of Nardus in the vegetation because other grasses are favoured and grazed more intensively. ...

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... As an example, a loss of short grass is a critical factor in reducing bird diversity at lower stocking rates of sheep (Vickery et al., 2001;Evans et al., 2005). Wright et al. (2006) reviewed the effects of cattle grazing of unimproved habitats on vegetation, birds, mammals and invertebrates. They concluded that cattle were less selective in their grazing behaviour than other domestic herbivores, leading to a different impact on unimproved, semi-natural habitats and the establishment of a structurally more diverse sward -a result of a reduction in cover by tussock-forming species that creates more niches for plant regeneration. ...
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Government policies relating to red meat production take account of the carbon footprint, environmental impact, and contributions to human health and nutrition, biodiversity and food security. This paper reviews the impact of grazing on these parameters and their interactions, identifying those practices that best meet governments' strategic goals. The recent focus of research on livestock grazing and biodiversity has been on reducing grazing intensity on hill and upland areas. Although this produces rapid increases in sward height and herbage mass, changes in structural diversity and plant species are slower, with no appreciable short-term increases in biodiversity so that environmental policies that simply involve reductions in numbers of livestock may not result in increased biodiversity. Furthermore, upland areas rely heavily on nutrient inputs to pastures so that withdrawal of these inputs can threaten food security. Differences in grazing patterns among breeds increase our ability to manage biodiversity if they are matched appropriately to different conservation grazing goals. Lowland grassland systems differ from upland pastures in that additional nutrients in the form of organic and inorganic fertilisers are more frequently applied to lowland pastures. Appropriate management of these nutrient applications is required, to reduce the associated environmental impact. New slurry-spreading techniques and technologies (e.g. the trailing shoe) help reduce nutrient losses but high nitrogen losses from urine deposition remain a key issue for lowland grassland systems. Nitrification inhibitors have the greatest potential to successfully tackle this problem. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are lower from indoor-based systems that use concentrates to shorten finishing periods. The challenge is to achieve the same level of performance from grass-based systems. Research has shown potential solutions through the use of forages containing condensed tannins or establishing swards with a high proportion of clover and high-sugar grasses. Relative to feeding conserved forage or concentrates, grazing fresh grass not only reduces GHG emissions but also enhances the fatty acid composition of meat in terms of consumer health. It is possible to influence biodiversity, nutrient utilisation, GHG emissions and the nutritional quality of meat in grass-based systems, but each of these parameters is intrinsically linked and should not be considered in isolation. Interactions between these parameters must be considered carefully when policies are being developed, in order to ensure that strategies designed to achieve positive gains in one category do not lead to a negative impact in another. Some win-win outcomes are identified.
... There are a number of benefits that are associated with introducing or maintaining cattle within a farming system. Two of the major benefits have been outlined by Wright et al. (2006), namely:i) Production of dung from cattle system leads to the introduction of invertebrate into the system; and ...
... Consequently, research has focused on the choices made by cows between patches of plants. Wright et al. (2006) summarise the studies which have been conducted on various habitats which are common within Scotland and have attempted to relate them to the situation of cattle grazing. However, given the diversity of habitat types there are numerous gaps in the data. ...
... However, cattle have played a traditional part in these areas as cereals are only grown for feed. Wright et al. (2006) estimate that loss of cattle would threaten a range of bird species (corncrake, corn bunting, twile, ringed plover). ...