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Distribution of Hajj and MSIS cohorts by age groups.

Distribution of Hajj and MSIS cohorts by age groups.

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The Hajj Ceremony, the largest annual gathering in the world, is the most important life event for any Muslim. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of stroke among Iranian pilgrims during the Hajj ceremony. We ascertained all cases of stroke occurring in a population of 92,974 Iranian pilgrims between November 27, 2007 and January 12,...

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... age distribution of the Hajj pilgrims and the MSIS population is presented in Figure 1. While 55% of the MSIS population was less than 35 years of age, the ma- jority of the pilgrims (75%) were between the ages of 35 and 64 years. ...

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... Thus, there is an increased risk of viral infections. As 75% of the pilgrims are usually between 35 and 64 years old [3], the majority of the pilgrims could be classified as elderly and chronically ill patients. ...
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Hajj and Umrah are Muslims’ religious pilgrimages to Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Hajj is considered the largest annual gathering in the world. In Islam, every adult is obligated to conduct Hajj and Umrah at least once if he/she is in good health and can afford to do so. Hajj takes place between the 8 $^{\mathrm{ th}}$ and the 13 $^{\mathrm{ th}}$ day of Dhul Hijjah, which is the last month of the Islamic year while Umrah, the minor pilgrimage, could be done any time of the year. In Hajj, pilgrims, also known as Hajjis, travel around 15 km and pilgrims have the choice to do it by foot, bus or by train. The Hajj journey starts from Mina, which is considered the largest tent city in the world because it hosts more than 10,000 fire resistant tents, and includes various religious rituals. Around 3 million Muslims from more than 183 countries make Hajj every year and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is working on increasing this number. Since 1989, researchers in various ICT domains have tried leveraging their expertise in solving challenges and issues related to Hajj and Umrah. Although several papers have surveyed efforts using technology in Hajj and Umrah research, none of them was comprehensive. In this paper, I classified research efforts that used information and communication technologies for solving Hajj and Umrah challenges over the past 33 years based on their applications in 10 categories. I also identified more than 30 technologies used by researchers all over the world to address Hajj and Umrah issues and group research efforts based on these technologies for ease of access. Furthermore, open challenges were discussed and new technologies that could be used to address these challenges were proposed.
... However, there are no data on the prevalence of stroke in Iran. Azarpazhooh et al., has published two population-based studies; the most recent one was a prospec- tive study on the incidence of stroke in Hajj pilgrims, yielding an age-adjusted incidence of 7/100,000 [17][18][19]. The second study ...
... is a large population based study of 450,229 people from Mash- had, and reported a crude age-adjusted incidence of 13/100,000 [18]. In 2011, Sarrafzadegan et al., undertook a population-based study in Isfahan and reported an incidence of 230/100,000 [20][21][22][23]. ...
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