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Distribution map of Gönnersdorf-style engravings and figurines. Parietal art (at some sites with parietal art portable art was also discovered): 1 Romanelli-2 Gouy and Orival-3 Margot-4 Les Combarelles, Saint-Cirq, Comarque, Vielmouly II, Fronsac, La Font Bargeix-5 Carriot-6 Lagrave-7 Pestillac-8 Planchard-9 Deux-Ouvertures-10 Gazel-11 Gourdan-12 El Linar. Portable art: 13 Megarnie-14 Gönnersdorf, Andernach, Niederbieber-15 Nebra-16 Oelknitz-17 Teufelsbrücke-18 Wilczyce-19 Pekarna-20 Bycí Skála-21 Hohlenstein bei Edersheim-22 Felsställe-23 Petersfels-24 NeuchâtelMonruz-25 Goutte Roffat-26 Rond-du-Barry-27 Faustin-28 Lalinde, Gare de Couze, Rochereil-29 Murat, Le Courbet, Fontalès-30 Las Caldas. After Bosinski et al. 2001, with additions from Sacchi 1986, Egloff 1995, Ipiens et al. 2000, Sentis 2003, Pigeaud et al. 2006 and Fiedorczuk et al. 2007.

Distribution map of Gönnersdorf-style engravings and figurines. Parietal art (at some sites with parietal art portable art was also discovered): 1 Romanelli-2 Gouy and Orival-3 Margot-4 Les Combarelles, Saint-Cirq, Comarque, Vielmouly II, Fronsac, La Font Bargeix-5 Carriot-6 Lagrave-7 Pestillac-8 Planchard-9 Deux-Ouvertures-10 Gazel-11 Gourdan-12 El Linar. Portable art: 13 Megarnie-14 Gönnersdorf, Andernach, Niederbieber-15 Nebra-16 Oelknitz-17 Teufelsbrücke-18 Wilczyce-19 Pekarna-20 Bycí Skála-21 Hohlenstein bei Edersheim-22 Felsställe-23 Petersfels-24 NeuchâtelMonruz-25 Goutte Roffat-26 Rond-du-Barry-27 Faustin-28 Lalinde, Gare de Couze, Rochereil-29 Murat, Le Courbet, Fontalès-30 Las Caldas. After Bosinski et al. 2001, with additions from Sacchi 1986, Egloff 1995, Ipiens et al. 2000, Sentis 2003, Pigeaud et al. 2006 and Fiedorczuk et al. 2007.

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Article
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Gönnersdorf-style figurines and silhouettes are well known at over 40 sites in western and central Europe and are found in association with Magdalenian or Azilian lithic industries. We describe an engraving of this type discovered at Grotta Romanelli in south-western Italy, in association with a Romanellian industry, a local facies of the Italian L...

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... Gönnersdorf-style female representations have been discovered at over 40 Magdalenian or, less frequently, Azilian sites, as portable as well as parietal art, as single representations or as multiple ones, with more than 400 examples known from the eponymous site (Fig. 4). The geographic distribution encompasses most of western and central Europe, from Cantabria to Moravia and Poland; however parietal art was restricted, up until now, to an area west of the Rhône Valley. Variants of the type are also known in the Ukraine, at Mezin and Mežirič -sites which are earlier than those in central and eastern ...

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Citations

... Bosinski et al., 2001;Bosinski, 2011aBosinski, , 2011bRios-Garaizar et al., 2015), may not be as clear as is usually assumed. This is more problematic when unambiguous 'Gönnersdorf-type' anthropomorphic depictions are otherwise not present at such sites where similar examples have been said to exist (e. g., Pettitt, 2007;Mussi and De Marco, 2008). ...
... The south-west of Europe provides, on one hand, numerous Late Pleistocene sites that are listed as possessing headless anthropomorphic depictions (Duhard, 1993), most of which have been assigned to the 'Gönnersdorf-type' (Fig. 5; cf. Bosinski et al., 2001;Bosinski, 2011aBosinski, , 2011bDuhard, 1993;Ladier et al., 2005;Mussi and De Marco, 2008;Rios-Garaizar et al., 2015;Sentis, 2005). On the other hand have most of these sites produced far fewer depictions than are known from central Europe, and many of the specimens discussed do not convincingly represent anthropomorphs. ...
... Similarly, Foz do Medal introduces more than 1500 fragments of Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian contexts with figurative depictions incised in slate and greywacke (Soares de Figueiredo et al., 2020: 65). The Gonnersdorf collection of the engraved slate stones is noticeable due to the specific style of depictions spread across Central and even Southern (Mussi and de Marco, 2008) Europe. However, the portable stones from Kamyana Mohyla have the biggest similarity with the collections containing slate or sandstone and engraved by scratching their surface (i.e. ...
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The complex of Kamyana Mohyla is the westernmost rock art location of the Eurasian Steppe and the largest accumulation of cave art sites in the Eastern Europe. So far it has been believed that the complex contains the Upper Paleolithic cave art images as well as portable art collection that resemble the instances of Upper Paleolithic worldview. Though this belief lacked the support of archaeological context and chronological attribution it remained neither proved nor disputed. However, the application of digital photogrammetric tools allowed to perform the sub-millimeter surface modeling of the rock art objects and to re-examine and reconsider the engravings that were previously attributed to Pleistocene. The modeling results presented in this article revealed the complete absence of figurative images for the collection of portable art specimens and the dubious character of those for the cave art one. Therefore, the whole collection should be reconsidered, studied and attributed according to the state of the art and contemporary archaeological record in the region. This contribution attempts to think over the possible Upper Paleolithic origin of the motifs from Kamyana Mohyla in the light of new data and proposes three hypotheses towards the understanding of the rock art assemblage from one of the caves in the complex.
... 8d-e) (Graziosi, 1973). In recenti lavori, nuove figure furono identificate, tra cui una sagoma femminile e uno zoomorfo attributo ad un bovide (Ciccarese, 2000;Mussi & De Marco, 2008). Le nuove attività di ricerca, tutt'ora in corso, stanno dimostrando come alcune delle linee disordinate ed incomprensibili formano unità grafiche definite (Sigari & Sardella, 2018). ...
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Nel parco Naturale Regionale Costa Otranto Santa Maria di Leuca - Bosco di Tricase sono presenti cavità carsiche che rappresentano preziosi archivi naturali dei cambiamenti climatici avvenuti nel corso del Quaternario e dell ' antica presenza umana sul territorio. Tra queste cavità, Grotta Romanelli ha attirato l' attenzione degli studiosi sin dalla fine del 1800. Grazie alle loro ricerche, la grotta ha restituito numerosi reperti archeologici (manufatti in calcare e in selce), sepolture umane, arte parietale e mobiliare, e reperti paleontologici, come il pinguino boreale alca impenne (Pinguinus impennis) divenuto una vera e propria icona della cosiddetta "era glaciale". La straordinaria ricchezza dei depositi ha reso Grotta Romanelli un sito chiave per lo studio dei cambiamenti climatici e delle relazioni tra uomo e ambiente nell'area mediterranea durante il Quaternario. Il contenuto della grotta, che si apre direttamente sul mare, è esposto ad un alto rischio di degrado per alterazione ad opera delle acque sia continentali (precipitazione, percolazione, ruscellamento), sia marine (mareggiate e spray marino). Pertanto, la nuova fase di scavi, iniziata nel 2015 e tuttora in corso, pone un'attenzione particolare alla documentazione e alle azioni atte alla conservazione della cavità, del deposito che vi è ancora conservato, delle pareti decorate con centinaia di incisioni. A tal fine è stato avviato il monitoraggio sistematico dei fattori di degrado, il rilievo speleologico e archeologico delle evidenze di arte rupestre e la realizzazione di modelli 3D, importante risorsa per la musealizzazione e la valorizzazione interattiva di grotte di difficile accesso ai non addetti ai lavori, come è Grotta Romanelli.
... Cave art Graziosi (1932Graziosi ( , 1933; Ciccarese (2000); Bugli et al. (2003); Mussi and De Marco (2008); Spinapolice (2008); Sigari (2018); Spinapolice (2018) Dating Bella et al. (1958); Alessio et al. (1964Alessio et al. ( , 1965; Fornaca-Rinaldi (1968a, 1968b; Fornaca-Rinaldi and Radmilli (1968); Calcagnile et al. (2019) However, most of the geological heritage of the Salento area is underexploited by local tourism (Margiotta and Sansò 2014;Sansò et al. 2015). According to Margiotta and Sansò (2014) and Sansò et al. (2015), the identification of geosites could be the basis for the building of a cultural attraction to promote tourism in this region. ...
... The fossil samples were dated in the laboratory of the BSapienza University in Rome^ (Bella et al. 1958;Alessio et al. 1964Alessio et al. , 1965, while Vogel and Waterbolk (1963) obtained five C 14 dates on charcoal (Table 3). Recently, Mussi and De Marco (2008) recalibrated these dates between 10,174 ± 169 cal years BP and 14,179 ± 759 cal years BP, using the CalPal2007_HULU curve. Recently, the age of the Bterre brune^has been reassessed using the accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14 C) dating techniques (Calcagnile et al. 2019). ...
... The lithic industry unearthed within the Bterre brune^layers (A-E) is very rich, including about 10,000 recovered artefacts, with a strong concentration of around 5800 samples in layer C. The tools include small Fig. 3 Stratigraphy of the Grotta Romanelli infilling deposits (from Blanc 1928). The original lettering of the infilling deposits is reported (Blanc 1920) endscrapers, burins, finely retouched points on a blade, and a bladelet, or flake (Mussi and De Marco 2008). Only 200 tools have been recovered from level E. The lithic sample includes small endscrapers, burins and many backed truncated artefacts. ...
... Cave art Graziosi (1932Graziosi ( , 1933; Ciccarese (2000); Bugli et al. (2003); Mussi and De Marco (2008); Spinapolice (2008); Sigari (2018); Spinapolice (2018) Dating Bella et al. (1958); Alessio et al. (1964Alessio et al. ( , 1965; Fornaca-Rinaldi (1968a, 1968b; Fornaca-Rinaldi and Radmilli (1968); Calcagnile et al. (2019) However, most of the geological heritage of the Salento area is underexploited by local tourism (Margiotta and Sansò 2014;Sansò et al. 2015). According to Margiotta and Sansò (2014) and Sansò et al. (2015), the identification of geosites could be the basis for the building of a cultural attraction to promote tourism in this region. ...
... The fossil samples were dated in the laboratory of the BSapienza University in Rome^ (Bella et al. 1958;Alessio et al. 1964Alessio et al. , 1965, while Vogel and Waterbolk (1963) obtained five C 14 dates on charcoal (Table 3). Recently, Mussi and De Marco (2008) recalibrated these dates between 10,174 ± 169 cal years BP and 14,179 ± 759 cal years BP, using the CalPal2007_HULU curve. Recently, the age of the Bterre brune^has been reassessed using the accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14 C) dating techniques (Calcagnile et al. 2019). ...
... The lithic industry unearthed within the Bterre brune^layers (A-E) is very rich, including about 10,000 recovered artefacts, with a strong concentration of around 5800 samples in layer C. The tools include small Fig. 3 Stratigraphy of the Grotta Romanelli infilling deposits (from Blanc 1928). The original lettering of the infilling deposits is reported (Blanc 1920) endscrapers, burins, finely retouched points on a blade, and a bladelet, or flake (Mussi and De Marco 2008). Only 200 tools have been recovered from level E. The lithic sample includes small endscrapers, burins and many backed truncated artefacts. ...
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Caves as geosites structurally illustrate the strict dependence of human occupation on geological and geomorphological processes, playing a crucial role in the development of human civilisation. Grotta Romanelli embodies such a kind of geosite, being a coastal cave occupied by humans since the Middle Pleistocene and considered a symbol of the Palaeolithic period in Europe. Research on the cave, derived from the excavation activities carried out last century, consisted of a well-documented stratigraphic framework, abundant fossil remains and archaeological findings which included tools and rock art. The excavation activities stopped for about 40 years, hampering any new research on the cave. In 2015, new fieldwork was initiated and the multidisciplinary team immediately had to face several conservation issues linked to natural processes (erosion, degradation of the walls due to biodeteriogens) and human activities (mainly legal and illegal excavations). The use of 3D technologies to document the different phases of the research, from the field work to the digital reconstruction of fossil remains, has been extensively applied and represents an attempt to solve the issues of accessibility, education and sharing the heritage, which should be further implemented in the future.
... Nonostante tali confronti con la Penisola iberica, non è comunque possibile fornire una datazione certa alla pittura schematica di Sezze, soprattutto perché questa non è associata a materiali archeologici. É opportuno sottolineare che pitture rupestri schematiche sono comunque presenti nella nostra penisola già a partire da momenti abbastanza antichi della preistoria (Aziliano), come visibile dai dipinti schematici di Grotta Romanelli (BATTAGLIA 1935;STELLA 1937;BLANC 1938BLANC , 1940FREDIANI, MARTINI 2003;MUSSI, DE MARCO 2008); anche sulla base di quest'ultima considerazione, l'attestazione artistica dell'Arnalo dei Bufali, potrebbe ricadere in un ampio arco cronologico, compreso tra Paleolitico Superiore ed Eneolitico. ...
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... the rich fossil assemblage and a wide variety of artefacts collected in the sediments of GR have been dispersed to different museums and institutions from the early stages of the excavations. these collections are the only available source of data for more recent studies (piperno 1974;Cassoli et al. 1979;Di Stefano et al. 1992;Fabri 2003;Spinapolice 2008;Mussi & de Marco 2008;Sardella et al. 2014). ...
... The figurative palimpsest of GR, according to the literature includes: two bovids, a deer, feminine silhouettes, geometric figures, lines and a supposed "Gönnersdorf-style" feminine silhouette (Ciccarese 2000;Graziosi 1973;Mussi et al. 2008). for about half a century, GR was the only Italian site with cave art referable to the upper palaeolithic and it is still considered unique for its huge rock art heritage. ...
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Grotta Romanelli, located on the Adriatic coast of southern Apulia (Italy), is considered a key site for the Mediterranean Pleistocene for its archaeological and palaeontological contents. The site, discovered in 1874, was re-evaluated only in 1900, when P. E. Stasi realised that it contained the first evidence of the Palaeolithic in Italy. Starting in 1914, G.A. Blanc led a pioneering excavation campaign, for the first-time using scientific methods applied to systematic paleontological and stratigraphical studies. Blanc proposed a stratigraphic framework for the cave. Different dating methods (C14 and U/Th) were used to temporally constrain the deposits. The extensive studies of the cave and its contents were mostly published in journals with limited distribution and access, until the end of the 1970s, when the site became forgotten. In 2015, with the permission of the authorities, a new excavation campaign began, led by a team from Sapienza University of Rome in collaboration with IGAG CNR and other research institutions. The research team had to deal with the consequences of more than 40 years of inactivity in the field and the combined effect of erosion and legal, as well as illegal, excavations. In this paper, we provide a database of all the information published during the first 70 years of excavations and highlight the outstanding problems and contradictions between the chronological and geomorphological evidence, the features of the faunal assemblages and the limestone artefacts.
... (Mussi, 2004). 2011a; Mussi y De Marco, 2008). Por tanto, se trata de un motivo que traspasa las fronteras geográficas y ecológicas, así como las establecidas por los modernos estudios de la industria lítica. ...
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A la fin du Pléistocène, lorsque se développent les cultures du Paléolithique supérieur, le climat est nettement plus froid qu’aujourd’hui sur toute la Terre, mais subit de nombreuses variations. Les groupes humains s’adaptent avec flexibilité à des changements répétés de leur environnement, qui de plus est diversifié d’une partie à l’autre de l’Europe et de l’Eurasie toute. Une césure très importante se produit pendant ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler le dernier Maximum Glaciaire : c’est une phase extrêmement froide, qui crée de telles modifications dans le milieu naturel que tout au travers de ce la partie septentrionale du continent la vie devient impossible pour les chasseurs-cueilleurs préhistoriques. Les groupes humains qui vivaient au-delà de 50° de latitude Nord pratiquement disparaissent – il n’y a plus que de très rares traces archéologiques au nord de la latitude qui est aujourd’hui celle de Paris – et ceux qui survivent se réfugient plus au sud. Ce n’est que beaucoup plus tard, vers 14.000 ans avant J.-C. en Europe occidentale, mais quelques millénaires plus tôt ailleurs dans le continent, que les territoires longtemps abandonnés recommencent à être parcourus et occupés. Puis, en quelques millénaires, avec la fonte des grandes calottes glaciaires, les groupes humains préhistoriques arrivent jusqu’en Scandinavie. Ces deux grandes périodes – avant et après le Maximum Glaciaire – sont caractérisées par de très nombreuses différences dans tout le répertoire archéologique et, notamment, dans les figurations féminines. Dans la présentation qui suit, je suivrai donc un ordre qui tient compte de cette importante dichotomie. La chronologie sera celle basées sur les datation au C14, corrigées (on dit calibrées) pour les faire correspondre aux années réelles du calendrier. En effet, il a été reconnu que le C14 donne des résultats qui sont systématiquement trop récents par rapport aux dates établies avec d’autres méthodes. Il faut donc appliquer des paramètres de correction, et c’est de ce résultat final que l’on tiendra compte ici.
... The same kind of hunting grounds was also available to human groups which settled again and again at Grotta Romanelli, in the heel of the Italian boot. The dates, which were produced in the early age of 14 C dating, are somewhat contradictory, and those which fit into the YD are listed in Table 1 (see Mussi and De Marco, 2008 for a discussion). Following several lines of evidence, it was suggested that levels C and D formed during the YD (Cassoli et al., 1979). ...
Article
A thorough review of the evidence of human settlement in Italy during the Younger Dryas (YD) is presented, making use of 14C-dated sites and, in some instances, of sites dated by proxy indicators (lithic seriation, cold-adapted animal species). Calibrated dates within the range 12.9–11.6 ka BP are retained. The analysis is arranged following a geographical division between northern Italy, with the pre-Alps and the north-eastern slope of the Apennine, and south-central Italy, with Sicily. In total, 31 dated sites are included, some of which multi-layered. The elusive evidence from Sardinia is also briefly discussed. It is underlined that there are far more cave sites than open-air sites in this sample, mostly because archaeological research has focused on caves, while taphonomy explains the partial destruction of the record in the open. A wide range of environments was settled, from coastal areas to river valleys, from lake basins and high plateaux to mountain ranges up to c. 1500 m asl. The most frequently hunted animals were either ibex (mountains as well as rocky cliffs, even at sea level and in the South), or hydruntine horse (plains and hills), accompanied by red deer. Birds, molluscs, and fish were also important resources at some sites. Rituals are indicated by a number of formal burials, while artwork includes Azilian pebbles and geometric wall engravings. In the pre-Alps, there are changes in the settlement pattern as campsites were smaller and shorter-lived than during the Alleröd. However, the same mountains and high elevation hunting grounds were exploited in the YD as before, and Alpine passes were crossed. Elsewhere, all over peninsular Italy, cave sites were in use again and again. Even if the climate was worsening, with temperatures markedly lower than during the Alleröd, the general conclusions are that, in the case of Italy, at the YD some limited indicators of stress can be detected so far only in Alpine areas.